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Topic. Teachers’ Professionalization and Professionalism in PNG compared with Australia.
Introduction
This write up is all about teachers’ professionalization and professionalism in PNG compared with that of Australia. Professionalization is the process whereby occupations seek to upgrade their professional status by adopting the attributes of the professional model and Professionalism is the manner of conduct within the teaching occupation. Teacher Professionalization and Teacher commitment of teachers is an important first step in the process of school reform: professionalization of teachers will result in higher commitment, which will positively affect teachers’ performance, which will ultimately lead to improvements in student learning throughout the world but in this essay it will do a an compression comparison especially between PNG and Australian professional teachers towards their students in elementary, primary, high school, secondary, universities, colleges and vocational/technical colleges. Coordinating teacher policy with a country’s education policy or plan is particularly crucial to its success. Teaching is a profession that lies at the heart of both the learning of children and young people and their social, cultural and economic development. It is crucial to transmitting and implanting social values, such as democracy, equality, tolerance, cultural understanding and respect for each person’s fundamental freedoms. (Education International, 2011, Article 29).One of the key elements in most of these reforms is the professional developments; societies are finally acknowledging that teachers are not only one of the ‘variables’ that need to be changed in order to improve their education systems, but they are also the most significance change agents in these reforms .This double role of teachers in educational reforms-being both subject and object of change-makes the change of teacher professional development a growing and challenging area and one that has received a major attention during the past few years.
Period of time for teachers’ professionalization.
In Papua New Guinea, teachers are required to have at least a bachelor’s degree to teach. Primary and secondary education teachers in Papua New Guinea receive their initial teacher training in courses taken after 12 years of schooling. Entry requirements for employment in the teaching service are described in the Joint Secretary and Chairman of the Teaching Service Commission’s Circular No. 1 (2001). Primary and secondary education teachers are required to have a bachelor’s degree, pass an assessment, and Principals in Papua New Guinea are officially required to monitor teacher performance. They are also expected to provide support and guidance to teachers in order to improve instructional practice. Once education systems select talented candidates to become principals, these leaders need to structure their time to focus on improving instruction (OECD 2012; Barber and Mourshed 2007). Have a minimum amount of practical professional experience (included in the degree program). Primary and secondary school teachers in Papua New Guinea are required to complete initial teacher education at the ISCED 5B level (defined as a career-oriented postsecondary degree of fewer than 4 years). In Papua New Guinea, practical professional experience is required for both primary and secondary school teachers-in-training. At the University of Goroka, where all domestic teachers are trained, practical experience is required and laid out in the Academic Rules and Regulations Handbook. In PNG the primary school teachers required 3 years of schooling for diploma course and high school and secondary school education are required to complete 4 years of schooling for bachelor in the University of Goroka.

But in Australia the most recent inquiry in teacher education in Australia, announced in (February 2014), was accompanied by a media article written by the federal Education Minister, Christopher Pyne, in which he stated’ And there is evidence that our teacher education system is not up to scratch. We are not attracting the top students into teacher courses as we once did, courses are too theoretical, ideological and faddish, not based on the evidence of what works in teaching important subjects like literacy. Teach for All ‘franchise’ has grown and spread throughout the world – Teach for America, Teacher for Australia, Teach First in the UK, and so on, now in more than 30 countries, approaches which focus on recruiting high-performing graduates from undergraduate non-education programmes to teach in disadvantaged schools after a short intensive preparation and then ongoing support and professional learning mostly on the job as they teach. Virtually all high performing countries require that teachers have an educational level equivalent to ISCED 5A (defined as a research-oriented bachelor’s degree requiring roughly four years to complete). Some systems, such as that of Finland, also require a research-based master’s degree (OECD 2011). rather than success in any formal qualifications to teach and credentialing or certification. They operate effectively at all stages of the teaching and learning cycle.
Accreditation attained to be professed as a teacher at different levels.
In Papua New Guinea, practical professional experience is required for both primary and secondary school teachers-in-training. At the University of Goroka, where all domestic teachers are trained, practical experience is required and laid out in the Academic Rules and Regulations Handbook. According to this handbook, students are required to en roll in microteaching and teaching practice courses. In addition, both University staff and school supervisors are required to observe teachers in training while they practice in the classroom and to provide assessments of their performance. Teaching Service Commission’s Teachers’ Handbook on their Entitlements (2013), new teachers are granted a provisional registration number for the first twelve months (or, in some cases, up to three years) of teaching before they are able to fully register with the Teacher
Education Division of the Department of Education. Their classroom performance, as assessed by standards officers, is a factor in determining whether and when a teacher can fully register.

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Australian professional standards for teachers as educators we are committed to life- long learning and we aim to ignite passion and curiosity in our students. Take the challenges that await you and inspire change among your colleagues. Accreditation is an opportunity to grow. The graduates standards underpin the accreditation of initial teacher education programs. Graduates from accredited program qualify for registration or accreditation in each state and territory. The proficient standards underpin process for full registration and accreditation as a teacher and support the requirements of nationality consistent teacher, according to Australian Professional Standards for Teachers Hand Book.
Things that can be done to monitoring and maintaining teacher professionalism.
In order to devise strategies for improving teaching and learning, it is essential to assess how well teachers are teaching and whether students are learning. First, identifying low-performing teachers and students is critical, as it enables education systems to provide struggling classrooms with adequate support to improve. In Papua New Guinea, systems to assess student learning are in place, but they may not inform policy. All high-performing education systems ensure that sufficient student data is gathered to inform teaching and policy, although they do so in very different ways. Regardless of the mechanism a country decides to use, high-performing systems ensure that three main functions are fulfilled: the system regularly collects relevant and complete data on student achievement; public authorities are able access these data in order to inform policy; and a feedback mechanism sends these data and relevant analyses to the school level to help teachers improve instructional practice. According to the Teaching Service Act of 1988, a member of the Teaching Service can apply to their department head to complete a professional assessment. As indicated in the Department of Education’s Secretary’s Circular No. 17 (2006), head teachers have full responsibility for teacher inspection, except in special circumstances where there are allegations of nepotism. In such cases, inspectors external to schools are expected to intervene. (Saber, 2014).

In Australia many in the academy have argued that maintaining and sustaining the professionalism of teacher education means teacher educators taking control of the accountability agenda by developing and implementing professional standards for teachers as outcome statements for teacher education that explicate what beginning teachers should know and be able to do, and also by providing opportunities for graduating teachers to demonstrate their capability in relation to those standards. Teachers demonstrate respect and professionalism in all their interaction with students, colleagues, parents/carers and the community. The biggest initial impact of the standards was on the high stakes performance assessment required in professional experience for student teachers. This is where a large group of supervising teachers, untrained in the use of the standards, had to apply the new graduate teaching standards as criteria for assessing teacher education students on professional experience. The greatest resource in Australian schools is our teachers.
Methods and processes involved in teacher professionalization.
In Papua New Guinea teachers aims to help fill this gap by collecting, analysing, synthesizing, and disseminating comprehensive information on teacher policies in primary and secondary education systems around the world. Teachers is a core component of SABER (Systems Approach for Better Education Results), an initiative of the World Bank’s Education Global Practice. SABER collects information about different education systems’ policy domains, analyses it to identify common challenges and promising solutions, and makes it widely available to inform countries’ decisions on where and how to invest in order to improve educational quality.The HR Policy Information and Operations Manual lays out the official tasks that teachers are expected to carry out. These obligations include attending to the needs of students, assisting head teachers and other education
leaders in the efficient management of the school and the education system as a whole, delivering the curriculum to students as determined by the National Education Plan and the National Curriculum Statement, and respecting communities’ customs and values.

The Australian they articulate what teachers are expected to know and be able to do at four career stages: Graduate, Proficient, Highly Accomplished and Lead. Standards contribute to the professionalization of teaching and raise the status of the profession. They could also be used as the basis for a professional accountability model, helping to ensure that teachers can demonstrate appropriate levels of professional knowledge, professional practice and professional engagement. Teachers know the content of their subjects and curriculum. They know and understand the fundamental concepts, structure and enquiry processes relevant to programs they teach. Teachers understand what constitutes effective, developmentally appropriate strategies in their learning and teaching programs and use this knowledge to make the content meaningful to students. The Standard Descriptors across the four career stages represent increasing levels of knowledge, practice and professional engagement for teachers. Progression through the stages describes a growing understanding, applied with increasing sophistication across a broader and more complex range of situations. In their studies they do a lot of research to have extra content knowledge for teaching in the class.
Lessons learnt from Australia are different from PNG Practice.
The lessons that are learnt from Australia and PNG are different along with their standards, in PNG they used the Curriculum and Instruction and Australian they used the Australian Professional Standard for Teachers. In Australia anybody can become a teacher by profession with someone who has a degree/diploma and has a masters/doctors by accreditation is the structure through which teachers are recognised as meeting these Standards. It ensures the integrity and accountability of the profession. In PNG it is someone who has completed his studies in the University of Goroka for 2 to 4 years with a diploma or degree with a teaching certificate are only eligible to teach as a teacher by profession in PNG. In Australia they do a lot of research everyday in their lives were as PNG they do research only when the assignment is given out for them to do.
Suggestions for improvement teacher professionalization in PNG.
• Adjust on timing/punctuality.( most teachers follow PNG time)
• Evaluation and revision also do a lot of research my ourselves every day.
• Vision or mission statement and objectives setting direction.
• Teaching standards has to adapt the following requirement, Professional Knowledge, Professional Practice and Professional Engagement practice in teaching draws on aspects of all three domains for Australia.
• Both students and teachers have to be well organized with computers and facilities to adapt to the changing/modern world.
Conclusion
Therefore to conclude, teachers are the backbone of everything, through teachers doctors and lawyers and other professional came to be so the University of Goroka both has to prioteies and value the teachers and produce the best teachers in PNG because we have only one institution of producing teacher is the UOG. Standards and authentic assessment against those standards provide a framing for sustaining the professionalism of teacher education wherein teacher educators control the accountability agenda assuring the profession, governments and the general public of the quality of the graduates they prepare. However, in many ways this work has been appropriated by those aiming to deregulate and marketise teacher education. Teachers know their students well, including their diverse linguistic, cultural and religious backgrounds. They know how the experiences that students bring to their classroom affect their continued learning. They know how to structure their lessons to meet the physical, social and intellectual development and characteristics of their students. Teachers are the heart of everything.

References
Educational International (2011) Policy Paper on Education. Building the Future through Quality Education. As adopted by the 6th EI World Congress Cape Town.
Barber, M. & Mourshed. ((2007) How the World’s Best-Performing School Systems come out on top. Mckinsey ;Co, London.
Christopher, P. (2014) A Quality Education begins with the best teachers.Sydney.Vol.14,No.2.
Sarah, F. (2014) Australian Professional Standards for Teacher. Teachers Accreditation. Sydney NSW. Retrieved from www.educationstandards.nsw.edu.au.
Papua New Guinea Teachers (2014). Saber Country Report. Systems Approach for Better Education Results. Retrieved from www.worldbank.org/education/saber.
—- —- —-.2006. Secretary’s Circular.No.17.
—- — —-.University of Goroka. N. d. Academic Rules and Regulations Handbook.
—- —- —.Teaching Service Commision.2013.Teachers Handbook on their Entitlements.

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