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The problem being investigated within this article is nurse burnout and its effects on patient care

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The problem being investigated within this article is nurse burnout and its effects on patient care. The author proposes that it is a necessity for this research problem to be explored. Since there is a pre-existing theory base for this research, the author intends to provide practical application related to these concepts. The purpose of conducting this study was to determine burnout levels among oncology nurses, related to the perceptions and the effects of burnout (Russell, 2016, p. 104). Findings reported in this article are generalizable; and can easily be transferred to other practice areas of nursing.
Russell (2016) aimed to identify “overall perceptions of burnout within the inpatient oncology nursing population, how they perceived the ways in which burnout affected the care they provided, and how they perceived that burnout could be decreased” (p. 104).
Dependent variables within this study included overall perceptions of burnout, how nurses perceived burnout affected patient care, and how burnout was thought to be decreased (Russell, 2016, p. 106). Independent variables within this study may include what shift nurses worked, if they worked overtime, length of time as a nurse, and employment status (Russell, 2016, p. 106). Variables are not indicated clearly, and nowhere do the terms dependent or independent variables occur explicitly within the study.
This was a descriptive, quantitative research study conducted using a survey design. This study would fall into the “Single Cross-Sectional Study” and carries a Level II for Descriptive quantitative questions on the evidence hierarchy (Polit & Beck, 2018, p. 23).
Data was collected using a two-part questionnaire. Two instruments used within this study included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and a researcher developed Inpatient Oncology Nursing Questionnaire (IONQ). The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey is a 22-item questionnaire that uses a Likert-type scale and focuses on three major categories related to burnout; emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment (Russell, 2016, p. 105). This scale has been used in burnout research for over 20 years and validity has been found to assess burnout in a consistent manner. The Inpatient Oncology Nursing Questionnaire was designed by the researcher to assess participants’ demographic information. The information collected included “number of years worked as an inpatient oncology nurse, employment status (full-time versus part-time), regular shift pattern, whether they work overtime, and, if so, the amount of overtime they complete” (Russell, 2016, p. 105). Additional information gathered with this survey included “perceptions of how nurses believe that burnout affects the care that they provide associated with staffing and how they perceive burnout can be decreased” (Russell, 2016, p. 106). Reliability and validity testing of this questionnaire was unavailable due to the fact that it was made explicitly for this research study.
The population of this research study was obtained on a voluntary and anonymous basis. Oncology nurses from three units at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Presbyterian were invited to participate.

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