The figure demonstrates the change in per capita income from 1000BC to 2000AD. During periods before the 1800s, the per capita income remained almost constant and followed the Malthusian Trap. Thus, for most periods of history, per capita income did not rise significantly and the average living standards in the 18th century in England were not much better than living standards in the ancient times. But after the Industrial Revolution began, new, improved technology and methods allowed food production to hugely increase which subsequently resulted in a continuous upward trend in the population and per capita income. Consequently, the Malthusian Trap was broken after the 1800s which was the stage of the great divergence.