The design of the work means to describe the task, the duties, the responsibilities, the qualifications, the methods and the relationships required to perform the given set of a job. In other words, the design of the work covers the components of the task and the pattern of interaction between employees, with the intention of satisfying both the organizational needs and the social needs of the job holder.
The goal of a work design is to organize work in such a way as to reduce boredom and dissatisfaction among employees, which arise due to the repetitive nature of the task. There are several important methods and techniques that management uses when designing jobs. These are:
Work Simplification: Simplifying work means dividing work into sub- Relatively easier parts with the intention of improving the productivity of the individual by minimizing the physical and mental efforts necessary to perform a complex work. Once the complex task is divided into relatively easy tasks, each task is assigned to the people who perform these over and over again. By doing the same thing over and over again, employees gain competence in the jobs assigned to them and, as a result, increases the profitability of the organization.
Under the work simplification method, the organization saves its training cost, as it requires a very low level of skills to perform simplified jobs. In addition, the speed of work increases as the individual is required to perform a small part of the previously larger and more complex work.
But, however, by doing the same task over and over again, employees can feel boredom and resist monotony. This can lead to an increase in absenteeism in the employees, mistakes and accidents, etc. Because of these negative consequences, overall productivity may be negatively affected and the organization can suffer losses as a whole.
Therefore, an organization cannot resort to simplifying work every time to obtain the economic benefits. It must take into account the organizational conditions that prevail at the time of the design of the work. (www.businessjargons.com)
Job Rotation: It is the management technique in which an employee shifts from one job to another, with the purpose of familiarizing it with all the verticals of an organization. In general, management apprentices who are fresher in the business world are moving to different jobs so that they understand the functions of business more accurately. The purpose of a work rotation is to reduce the drudgery of work and allow an employee to acquire the multiple skills needed to perform different tasks in the organization. (https://businessjargons.com/job-design.html)
Work Enrichment: It is the work design technique that is used to increase employee satisfaction by delegating greater authority and responsibility and therefore allowing them to use their skills to the fullest. In other words, labor enrichment is the opportunity that employees are given to explore their skills when assigned a difficult task. The enrichment of the work is the vertical restructuring of the moral excellence in which the employees are given more control, autonomy and control to carry out a certain set of works. This concept contrasts with the enlargement of the work, which considers the horizontal restructuring, where more and more tasks are added, and the challenge remains the same. Therefore, the enrichment of the work is characterized by the variety of tasks and challenges that have different levels of difficulty. The organization can Get benefits through this work design technique in any of the following ways:
With an increase in the morale of the employees, the more motivated, it comes to produce the best results and, therefore, increases the profitability of the company. When employees have more responsibility for their work and results, it becomes quite easy for the organization to operate.
By empowering employees to perform higher-level jobs, the company is preparing its employees to fill those high-level posts in the near future. In addition, with the enrichment of work, the amount of levels in the administration can be reduced, thus minimizing the complexity of the organization.
The purpose behind the enrichment of the job is to motivate employees to use their skills that were not used during their course of action. Moreover, through the enrichment of work, the monotony is broken and the employees have the opportunity to do something new, which finally results in an increase in the levels of satisfaction. (www.businessjargons.com)
Work Expansion: It refers to the horizontal expansion of the work in which more and more activities and tasks are added to the scope of the existing work at the same level of the organization. In other words, expanding jobs means increasing the scope of a person’s duties and responsibilities by adding activities related to their existing work profile and, in general, without any change in their authority and level in the Organization hierarchy.
The purpose behind expanding work is to increase employee flexibility and reduce the monotony that occurs gradually over a period of time. Employees are often not required to receive training for homework-related activities because they are already aware of that and are doing it for quite some time. But, however, if the aggregate activity is new to an employee and is
Not related to their current working nature, then they should be given adequate training to familiarize themselves with the new working conditions.
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