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The ancient river valley was civilized in 3500 BCE and located around Egypt and Mesopotamia

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The ancient river valley was civilized in 3500 BCE and located around Egypt and Mesopotamia, this was discovered by agriculture and human needs. This doesn’t make sense. More than one civilisation, more than one location. Agriculture did not discover anything. Egypt and Mesopotamia are very similar but they are also very diverse because of their geography, climate and technologies. Good

Egypt and Mesopotamia are similar but their each had a different geography are different. The ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into two types of land, the ‘black land’ and the ‘red land’. The ‘black land’ was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile. The ancient Egyptians used this land for growing their crops, The ‘red land’ was the barren desert that protected Egypt on two sides. Egypt also has one main river called the Nile which is known as the Gift of the Nile. The Nile was used like a high way for boats, the Egyptians used the Nile for transportation and shipping from very early on. They became experts at building boats and navigating the river. Early Egyptians learned to make small boats out of the papyrus plant. Mesopotamia is a Greek word meaning ‘between the rivers’. The rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates which flow through modern Iraq, these rivers are fed from the mountains. The Euphrates also flows through much of Syria Southern Mesopotamia is made up of marshy areas and wide, flat, barren plains. The geography of each area and the natural resources found there affected the ways that people lived

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Egypt and Mesopotamia have different climates. Ancient Egypt had only two seasons: a mild winter from November to April and a hot summer from May to October. The only differences between the seasons are variations in daytime temperatures and changes in the winds. The winters were not so cold, and the average winter temperature was 9 degrees Celsius. There were rains during winter and it was tough for the clay-made houses. The dryness of the climate facilitated the construction of mud houses. The people who did not live near the Nile obviously depended on rain. Ancient Egypt had no cloud cover, due to the lack of moisture in the air, heat absorbed during the day was lost during the night with no clouds to hold it in. Mesopotamia climate depended on its location as it was situated between the two major rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. The seasons were hot and cold. Respite from the summer heat came with moderate rainfall. But floods dominated as the rivers encircled the land and caused immense damage to the properties. Farmers learnt to control the floods and grew some of the most valuable crops like flax, barley, wheat, fruits and vegetables that helped the economy progress. But the climate in Mesopotamia was hazardous with temperatures during the summer months ranging from 43 to 54C. Nearly eight months in a year was characterized by very dry conditions.

Egypt and Mesopotamia Technologies are similar but very different from one another. Mesopotamia invented many things like the map which was discovered in Babylonia around 2300 B.C. The Ancient Cartography that was used in Babylonia was a simple sketch on clay tablets. The clay map discovered in Mesopotamia illustrates the Akkadian region of Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq). It covered a small area and was mostly used as a city map. Also, the wheel was invented in Mesopotamia which wasn’t used for transportation but was invented to serve as porter’s wheels. The first wheel was believed to exist around 3,500 BC. Another technology from Mesopotamia was the chariot, the first chariot appeared around 3200 BC and was made of light wood. Humans learned to domesticate horses, bulls, and other animals that were useful for them, with that it lead to the chariot. The chariot was not a sudden invention, but the gradual improvement of the earliest carriage, and also was the first concept of personal transportation. It had been used for years as a key technology for warfare, for most of the ancient sports, and as a mean of transportation. Ancient Egyptians crated more agricultural technologies to aid them on the fields. The Shadoof is one of them The Shadoof is a long balancing pole with a weight on one end and a bucket on the other, The bucket is filled with water and easily raised then emptied onto higher ground. They also invented the sickle which is a curved blade used for cutting and harvesting grain, such as wheat and barley. Another technology form Ancient Egypt is cosmetic make up, The Ancient Egyptians invented eye makeup as far back as 4000 B.C. They combined soot with a lead mineral called galena to create a black ointment known as kohl. They also made green eye makeup by combining malachite with galena to tint the ointment, Both men and women wore eye makeup; believing it could cure eye diseases and keep them from falling victim to the evil eye.

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