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Surname: Madimabe
First names: Selinah Koketso
Id number: 9409170226082
Student no: 28075250
Course: B.Ed. Foundation Phase
Module: EDCC 323
Contacts: 0783110767/ [email protected]
Assignment: 1
Year: 2018
Table of contents
Study uni1 1
Activity 1.1
The nature of educational psychology
Activity 1.2
Definition and description of inclusive education, Learning support, Learner support, Special needs, Disabilities & Impairments
Analyses of the differences and similarities between mainstreaming, integration and inclusion
Discussion on curriculum obstacles can result in barriers to learning.

Flexible curriculum as an integral feature of inclusive education
STUDY UNIT 2
Task 2.2
Report on support or enrichment programmes for gifted learners.

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Activity 2.5
Possible indicators of underachievement in a gifted learner
Understanding of factors associated with underachievement
How to include parents in the process of helping a gifted underachiever
STUDY UNIT 3. 4 & 5 Barriers to learning & an individual support plan
Mind map on dyslexia
Individual support plan to support a learner with dyslexia
Bibliography
2019300-579120To give understanding of the scientific methods and procedures which have been used in arriving at the facts and principles of educational psychology.

00To give understanding of the scientific methods and procedures which have been used in arriving at the facts and principles of educational psychology.

ACTIVITY 1.1
4724400233045To give understanding of the nature, aims and purposes of education.

00To give understanding of the nature, aims and purposes of education.

338328010160000
-609600264795Educational Psychology: Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.

00Educational Psychology: Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.

454234043878002537460224155The nature of educational psychology
0The nature of educational psychology

223266031305500470549424912200
226128615386800
4276090302895To present the principles and techniques of learning and teaching
00To present the principles and techniques of learning and teaching

157099026347100299212019304000-304800129540To give training in methods of measuring abilities and achievement in school subjects
00To give training in methods of measuring abilities and achievement in school subjects

434340211455To provide knowledge of the nature of the child
00To provide knowledge of the nature of the child
445008020955 To study the educational significance and control of emotions
00 To study the educational significance and control of emotions

515874027368500
11658607302500
387096081915 To give an understanding of the principles and techniques of correct training
00 To give an understanding of the principles and techniques of correct training
91440219075To provide knowledge of the growth and development of children
00To provide knowledge of the growth and development of children

(Kelly, 1941)
Activity 1.2
Term Definition Description
Inclusive education Inclusive Education (IE) is a process of addressing the diverse needs of all learners by reducing barriers to, and within the learning environment, ( DoBE: 2001) Involving children with diverse learning needs regardless of their differences such as age, gender, ethnicity, language, class, (DoE, 2001: 6)
Learning support learning support is a way of assisting in meeting learners’ academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners’ self-esteem and improving learners’ academic performance. South African Journal of Education; 2014; 34(1) Implementing different resources, strategies, and practices that provide physical, social, emotional, and intellectual supports that meet the needs of diverse learners in order to address and promote engagement in teaching and learning.
Learner support Strategies which empower learners to establish and fulfil their learning, career and personal potential, (Phillip Baker: 2005). Learner support focuses on offering support (counselling, positive feedback) to a particular group of learners in order to increase opportunities for success and high quality education for all.

Special needs a restriction in the capacity of the person to participate in and benefit from education on account of an enduring physical, sensory, mental health or learning disability, or any other condition which results in a person learning differently from a person without that condition. (NCSE, 2014: 10) special needs is when an individual typically require some type of specialized care, including medication, therapy, social skills instruction, assisted living, or special education in order to be able to participate in different activities.
Disabilities and impairments Impairment refers to a person’s actual abnormality or condition while disability is the restriction or limitation caused by impairment. Inability for a person’s part of the body to function due to impairment.

2. Differences between mainstreaming, integration and inclusion
Mainstreaming is when children of different learning needs or abilities attend the same schools. These children learn the same content, but for those with special needs or differences, their content is simplified and modified to meet their needs. Integration is when there are children who require special educational needs but learn in the general classrooms where they have to fit in to what other learners does, while with inclusion every learner in the classroom is unique, therefore all learners including those with special needs receives quality education with the necessary supporting materials and resources.

Similarities between mainstreaming, integration and inclusion
Mainstreaming, integration and inclusion are aspects that respect the right to education for all as they accommodate all learners. Inclusion and mainstreaming are far more concerned with quality education and accommodates the needs of all learners.

3. Curriculum obstacles
Different obstacles in learning can result in barriers to learning which can affect different learners in different ways. Curriculum on its own can be a barrier as it does not meet the needs of diverse learners. When there are changes in curriculum or the curriculum changes completely, educators should go through adequate training, but when the training is inadequate, educators will continue using the same teaching methods as well as resources which may not be effective for learners to acquire knowledge easily. Time allocation can be a disadvantage to other learners as the teacher may teach at a pace which only accommodates learners who learn very quickly. In foundation phase children do not have a choice of subjects, this means that learners learn what is on offer not what is of their interest. One of the most serious ways in which learners are prevented from accessing the curriculum is through inadequate provision of materials or equipment they may need for learning to take place. Such barriers often affect learners with disabilities who do not receive the necessary assistive devices which would equip them to participate in the learning process.

4. Flexible curriculum
Flexible curriculum looks on the needs of individual learners. The curriculum is formed based on the individual needs of learners; therefore it clearly shows that there is no “one size fits all”. It enables all learners to receive the best quality education that is of their interest. It addresses and incorporates national, local and learners’ diversities – Strong focus on fostering a comprehensive citizenship education – It needs to achieve a balance between the global, national and local expectations, realities and needs.

Study unit 2 Task 2.2
Introduction
In South Africa, education is a right not a privilege. Different children have different learning abilities and ways of acquiring knowledge. Schools have different learners like gifted learners; gifted learners are children with intellectual ability significantly higher than average. Gifted learners need special academic support, the same way as interventions are made for slow learners.
Aims of support or enrichment programmes for gifted learners.
There are different programmes offered to gifted learners. The purpose of these programmes is to provide extended learning opportunities and challenges to learners who have mastered or can quickly master the basic curriculum. The support programmes for gifted learners gives learners the opportunity to study more broad concepts with greater depth and complexity. Enrichment programmes for gifted learners provides opportunities for learners to pursue learning in their own areas of interest and strengths.
How gifted learners can benefit from support or enrichment programmes
Every child needs support; even gifted learners should be given the necessary support in order to accelerate their academic needs. During enrichment programmes learners can socialise with peers of the same academic level and to also learn that their differences does not have to isolate them from their peers in mainstream schools. They continue to learn and be motivated so that the rate of dropouts can be reduced as researchers’ shows that even gifted learners can drop out of due to lack of relevant support and not knowing how to handle their differences as compared to other learners. Specialized Programs offers learning opportunities where many gifted students can benefit from specialized learning opportunities which could include field trips, hands-on experiences or topical classroom guests. Parents and educators are also taught how to deal with such learners and they are provided with skills not to forget that the gifted learner is still only a child although they function academically on a higher level than the other learners, this does not mean that they are emotionally and physically functioning on the same level as their academics.
Conclusion
Too high social demands are often made on the gifted learner which may result on the learner being uncertain about other aspects of life. Being gifted doesn’t have to isolate child, but to be a motivation to other learners to achieve as well and build positive self-concept.

Activity 2.5
a. Possible indicators of underachievement in a gifted learner
According to Kapp, et al. (2016), a learner should first be identified as gifted before one might speak of a gifted underachiever. Children’s ability cannot be determined only by their IQ levels, but also areas such as music, art, mathematics, literature and natural science. Possible indicators of underachievement in a gifted learner as identified by Ahola and Kovacik (2007) includes rapid developmental growth in and mastery of a particular domain at a fairly young age, the motivation to learn as much as possible as well as the unique creative skills. While Freeman (1985) mentions the child’s IQ, language skills, cognitive functions such as memory and attention.

b. Understanding of factors associated with underachievement
Learners can get support after the educators have identified some of the factors that have impact on the child as an underachiever. Interest and aptitude is one of the factors that could confuse the child and lead them to being unable to find direction among the multitude of possibilities open to them. Subject choices may add to children’s motivation to achieve. Learners express themselves differently; therefore anxiety in some gifted learners may contribute to possible underachievement, while in others may serve as stimulation towards greater achievement. Support is an important tool for children’s achievement, hence it is important that teachers helps children build a positive self-concept that would make them not to distinguish themselves from others but use it as a tool to learn from others too. Negative self-concept may lead to continued frustration and it could last for a life-time. Motivation can be a tool that serves as a weapon to encourage underachievers not to give up easily and work hard. The school also should have a strategy of not exposing and criticising learners.

C. How to include parents in the process of helping a gifted underachiever
Parents should be involved in activities and programmes that support their children. Parents need to be taught about learners’ differences so that they do not put pressure on their kids by making academic demands as it may affect the learner’s attitude towards school adversely. Parents can form support groups where they can share their experiences with other parents so that they also can have a motivation structure and not give up on their kids.

3040380-678180Causes
Genetic factor
Brain function
Neuro-anatomical and neuro-chemical differences in brain activity
Poor development in the brain structure and the neural connections needed for processing information
00Causes
Genetic factor
Brain function
Neuro-anatomical and neuro-chemical differences in brain activity
Poor development in the brain structure and the neural connections needed for processing information
Study unit 3, 4 and 5
-61722020955What is a barrier to learning?
It is anything that stands in the way of a child being able to learn.

00What is a barrier to learning?
It is anything that stands in the way of a child being able to learn.

185166034607500
410718033655000
-678180173990What is dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a neurologically-based, often familial disorder which interferes with the acquisition and processing of language.
00What is dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a neurologically-based, often familial disorder which interferes with the acquisition and processing of language.
2956560295910Barrier: Dyslexia
00Barrier: Dyslexia

389382021780500475488080645Memory
00Memory
229362027114500
553212070485004564380344805Difficulty in remembering:
sets of instructions
Sequence
Rules and patterns
00Difficulty in remembering:
sets of instructions
Sequence
Rules and patterns
342138033718500
133350043180Characteristics
00Characteristics

3040380946150013335004889500-548640254635Literacy skills: reading and spelling
00Literacy skills: reading and spelling
34290004889500
4008120107315Behaviour
00Behaviour

2103120311150Effects
Difficulty in: Reading
Learning new vocabulary
Grammar
Writing
Spelling
Confidence
00Effects
Difficulty in: Reading
Learning new vocabulary
Grammar
Writing
Spelling
Confidence
481584059690007924802921000
419100011430Poor attention span and high and high distractibility
Denying difficulties and therefore rejecting help
Appearing depressed and show signs of frustration
00Poor attention span and high and high distractibility
Denying difficulties and therefore rejecting help
Appearing depressed and show signs of frustration
-54864011430Difficulty in learning the letters of the alphabet.

Difficulty with taking notes and spelling
00Difficulty in learning the letters of the alphabet.

Difficulty with taking notes and spelling

6019808128000
-464820247015Learners with dyslexia will have difficulty in doing activities such as:
Phoneme segmentation
Phoneme deletion
Phoneme matching
Phoneme counting
Phoneme substitution
Blending
rhyming
00Learners with dyslexia will have difficulty in doing activities such as:
Phoneme segmentation
Phoneme deletion
Phoneme matching
Phoneme counting
Phoneme substitution
Blending
rhyming

254508041910Organisational and motor skills
00Organisational and motor skills

36195003238500
234696083185Working too fast or too slowly
Difficulty in keeping within the lines when writing or colouring
Losing track of the aim or purpose of the task
00Working too fast or too slowly
Difficulty in keeping within the lines when writing or colouring
Losing track of the aim or purpose of the task

b. SUPPORT PLAN
Introduction
Every child has the right to learn. The teacher should have strategies and techniques on how he/ she accommodate the needs of all diverse learners in the classroom. It is important not to isolate the child due to his/ her difference. The teachers can integrate the child’s needs or differences into the class environment where he/ she can feel comfortable and develop confidence and self-esteem.

The purpose of Individualised Support Plan for children with dyslexia.
The purpose of this plan is to measure the progress of the child and to identify areas that need more help. The teacher can make use of different teaching styles and always use teaching and learning aids so that the level of frustration on learners can be at ease. Children with dyslexia not only require assistance in academics and it does not mean that they are no good in other activities. The teacher can give learners the opportunity to express themselves in different ways; she can allow them to sing their favourite song as a way of building self-confidence and self-esteem. Independent Support Plan is mainly created for a specific learner with a specific purpose; therefore the teacher should use different forms of assessments as there is no ‘one size fits all’. The teacher should consider the child’s interest when creating individual support plan, for example if the child is interested in sports, the teacher can integrate sports and language lessons so that the learner do not feel left out.

Conclusion
It is important for the teacher to use the scaffolding method when dealing with children with dyslexia. Dyslexia is a condition that can’t be cured, but treatment can help.
GENERAL SUPPORT STRATEGIES
Adjust instructions and simplify language
Key Symbol
Not yet achieved
Achieved to an adequate standard, but not yet achieved consistently to a high standard
Achieved consistently to a high standard
Use variety of learning material
Effective grouping
Modified assessments
Cooperative learning styles

NAME:…………………….GRADE:…………………Processing of language-based information (auditory and/or visual)
Areas that may be affected Teacher support/ comment. Learner improvement
Difficulties in following a sequence of instructions Avoid long instructions or rather do a step by step instruction.
Difficulty in recognising the relationships between onset and rime – c/at and b/at; m/at and s/at Teach the relationship between letters and sounds.
Confusion of similar sounding letters – d/t; f/v/th; short vowels Give learners charts with words and pictures that have similar sounding letters.
Phonological awareness
Areas that may be affected Teacher support/ comment Learner improvement
Difficulty with keeping a simple rhythm Allow the learner to create their own rhythm and repeat it.
Difficulty isolating words when listening to a sentence being spoken Teach words isolation using word strips
Difficulty manipulating sounds in words and sentences Teach different word families
Oral language skills and reading fluency
Areas that may be affected Teacher support/ comment Learner improvement
May often use the wrong word Teach both words at the same time to show the difference.
Difficulty in associating letters and sounds Use flash cards and pictures as well as alphabet songs.
Visual confusion over small words/ Substitutes or inserts words when reading Read the word with the learner, segment the word and blend it and read the word again.
Short-term and working memory
Areas that may be affected Teacher support/ comment Learner improvement
Appears to forget information previously learnt Provide clues so that the child can think and reflect back.
Difficulty remembering a short sequence of numbers Use pictures to help the child remember the sequence
Sequencing and directionality
Areas that may be affected Teacher support/ comment Learner improvement
May have difficulty following/ retelling the story in sequence Do not always use books as the content make the child frustrated, rather re-type the story and use simple pictures.
Difficulty in following the reading and writing direction of left to right and top to bottom Make use of a ruler and teach learner to point at each word they are reading.
Organisational ability
Areas that may be affected Teacher support/ comment Learner improvement
Difficulties remembering where things are in the classroom Label items in the classroom and use arrows for direction.
Placing things in order Play a game of sorting while using the vocabulary that you want to teach.(short, tall, dark)
Motor skills and co-ordination
Areas that may be affected Teacher support/ comment Learner improvement
Gross motor coordination difficulties e.g. star jumps, catching, throwing, balance Provide toys that will automatically make the child do gross motor activities, for example a ball, the child will either kick roll or throw.
Fine motor coordination difficulties e.g. handwriting, tying laces, scissor skills Do not always make use of pen and paper, rather allow children to paint, write on the soil or use clay.
Reference
Bornman, J. ; Rose, J. (2010). Believe that all can achieve. Increasing classroom participation in learners with special support needs. Van Schaik. Pretoria. ISBN 978-0-627-02796-3.

Department of basic education (2001:6)
http://ncse.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/ChildrenWithSpecialEdNeeds1.pdf
Citation: Huitt, W. (2011). Why study educational psychology? Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved 09/08/18, fromhttp://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/intro/whyedpsy.htmlhttps://www.grin.com/document/374513www.itslifejimbutnotasweknowit.org.uk/filesWCLSRNLsupport2.pdf

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