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STERLING ENGINE DRIVE BY PARABOLIC MIRROR IN APPICATION ON HOUSEHOLD FOR SAVING ENERGY By SR NAME ENROLLMENT NO

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STERLING ENGINE DRIVE BY PARABOLIC MIRROR IN APPICATION ON HOUSEHOLD FOR SAVING ENERGY
By
SR NAME ENROLLMENT NO.
1 CHIRAG H. PATEL 140260119069
2 JAY K. ATEL
140260119088
3

4 YASH K. PATEL

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JATINSINH R. SOLANKI 140260119116

140263119150

Institute Guide :
Prof.VIRAL R. PATEL
Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering Department
A Project Report Submitted to
Gujarat Technological University
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
the Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering (19)
MAY-2018

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Kalol Institute of Technology & Research center (026)
KIRC Campus,Ahmadabad – Mehsana Highway,
Kalol-382721 Dist: Gadhinagar (N.G.)
CERTIFICATE

This is to Certify that research work embodied in this project entitled “sterling engine driven by parabolic mirror use in application on household for saving energy ” was carried out by MR. PATEL CHIRAG H. (E.NO : 140260119069), MR. PATEL JAY K. (E.NO : 140260119084), MR. PATEL YASH K.(E.NO : 140260119116) and MR. SOLANKI JATINSINH R. (E.NO : 140263119150) at Kalol Institute of Technology & Research center (026) for partial fulfillment of Bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University. This research work has been carried out under my supervision and is to my satisfaction of department. The student work has been accepted for publication.

Date:
Place:
Signature: ___________________ Signature: _______________
Institute Guide: PROF. VIRAL R. PATEL (Head of Department)

PAPER PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled “sterling engine driven by parabolic mirror use in application on household for saving energy” was carried out by Mr. Patel chirag h. (E.NO : 140260119069), Mr. Patel jay k. (E.NO : 140260119084), Mr. Patel yash k. (E.NO : 140260119116) and Mr. Solanki jatinsinh r. (E.NO : 140263119150) at Kalol Institute of Technology & Research centre (026) for partial fulfilment of Bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University, has been published for publication by National Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology(NCAET-2012) at Kalol Institute of Technology & Research Centre, Kalol, North Gujarat during March 9-10, 2012.

Date:
Place:

Signature: _______________ Signature: _________________
Students Institute Guide: PROF.VIRAL R. PATEL

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

I hereby certify that I am the sole author of this thesis and that neither any part of this thesis nor the whole of the thesis has been submitted for a degree to any other University or Institution.
I certify that, to the best of my knowledge, my thesis does not infringe upon anyone’s copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques, quotations, or any other material from the work of other people included in my thesis, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing practices. Furthermore, to the extent that I have included copyrighted material that surpasses the bounds of fair dealing within the meaning of the Indian Copyright Act, I certify that I have obtained a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to include such material(s) in my thesis and have included copies of such copyright clearances to my appendix.
I declare that this is a true copy of my thesis, including any final revisions, as approved by my thesis review committee.

Date:
Place:
Student:
CHIRAG PATEL (140260119069)
JAY PATEL (140260119084)
YASH PATEL (140260119116)
JATINSINH SOLANKI (140263119150)

Verified By
Signature: ________________
Institute Guide: PROF.VIRAL R. PATEL

PROJECT APPROVAL

This is to certify that research work embodied in this entitled “sterling engine driven by parabolic mirror use in application on household for saving energy ” was carried out by MR. VIRAL R. PATEL at Kalol Institute of Technology ; Research center (026) is approved for award of the bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering by Gujarat Technological University.

Date:
Place:
External Examiner(s):

_______________________, ______________________,
( ) ( )

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i
Certificate ii
Paper Publication Certificate iii
Declaration of originality
iv
Project approval
v
Table of Contents vi
List of Figures viii
List of Tables ix
Abstract X

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 01

CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Summery of Literature Review

CHAPTER-3 PLAN OF WORK
3.1 Construction of sterling engine with parabolic mirror

CHAPTER-4 DESIGN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODOLOGY
4.1 reasearh Methodology

4.2 Mathematical Analysis

CHAPTER-5 IMPLEMANTATION AND CANVAS PRESENTATION
5.1 AEIOU Summary

5.2 Empathy Canvas

5.3 Ideation Canvas

5.4 Product Development Canvas

CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION OR SUMMARY OF RESULT

CHAPTER-7 REFERENCES
Abstract

• This paper provides a study on the configuration of Stirling engines and the effect using a solar dish as a heat source on efficiency. Temperature and speed were measured for the base model Stirling engine to determine the initial efficiency.
• Modifications were planned to add a parabolic mirror as a solar dish and compare the efficiency to the initial design, however, the completed solar Stirling engine testing and data collection is to be performed in the following summer.
• The work performed by the engine was to be calculated using the Schmidt formula to then find the power output. Results from the completion of this study would indicate how the solar dish effects the power output of the Stirling engine.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction
• Concentrating solar power technologies have been under development for some time in order to achieve higher fluid temperatures than flat plate collectors, so that higher conversion efficiency can be attained with a solar plant producing electricity.

• The focus of this article will be solar parabolic dish – stirling engine systems.

• Direct Solar Radiation and Beam Solar Radiation

Any of the concentrating solar reflectors, like the solar parabolic dish, can use only the direct component of incoming solar radiation.
Direct solar radiation (also called beam radiation) is that portion of the incoming solar radiation that travels from the sun to the surface of the earth in essentially a straight line, without being reflected, deflected, or absorbed and retransmitted by particles or gases in the atmosphere.
The other component of terrestrial solar radiation is called diffuse solar radiation. It is the portion of incoming solar radiation that is reflected, deflected, or absorbed and retransmitted by particle or gases in the atmosphere, but still ultimately reaches the earth’s surface.
As shown in the diagram at the right, direct solar radiation rays are all parallel to each other and thus are focused by the solar parabolic dish reflector onto the stirling engine receiver.
The diffuse solar radiation strikes the solar parabolic dish from many different directions and thus is not focused onto the stirling engine receiver.

General Description of Solar Parabolic Dish – Strirling Engine Technology
An individual solar parabolic dish – sterling engine unit consists of a two axis tracking, parabolic dish reflector that focuses incoming sunlight onto a sterling cycle engine/generator. The engine/generator uses the sterling thermodynamic cycle to produce electricity without producing steam as an intermediate step. The parabolic dish reflector which moves to continuously face the sun, thus producing a high temperature in the fluid receiving the focused solar energy. Individual solar parabolic dish – sterling engine units, like the one shown in the image at the left, typically produce 3 to 25 kW each. By using a great many units in an array for a solar plant, as shown in the image at the right, solar power can be produced at the MW level in a solar plant.

• Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Parabolic Dish – Sterling Engine Technology
Here are some advantages and disadvantages of a solar parabolic dish – sterling engine solar plant in comparison with the other three concentrating solar power technologies introduced in first ariticle of the siries; parabolic trough, heliotrope solar tower, and linear fresnel systems.

Advantages:
• The high fluid temperature attainable by the two axis tracking solar parabolic dish leads to high conversion efficiency of solar power to electricity (for a heat engine). Conversion efficiency approaching 30% has been achieved. This is the highest conversion efficiency of the concentrating solar power technologies.
• The solar parabolic dish – sterling engine system can be used as a relatively small distributed power source, because a single unit is self-contained. By combining a lot of the units, MW levels of electricity from solar power can be produced.
• The solar parabolic dish – sterling engine system has only a very minimal water requirement. The engine is air cooled, so no cooling water is needed and the performance penalty associated with dry air condenser cooling for a steam power plant doesn’t enter into the picture.

Disadvantage:
• Due to the distributed nature of the solar parabolic dish – sterling engine system, with many individual units, this type of system doesn’t lend itself well for thermal energy storage, to allow electricity generation when the sun isn’t shining.

• Status of Commercialization of Solar Parabolic Dish – Sterling Engine Technology
There are currently no commercial solar parabolic dish – sterling engine solar plants in operation early in 2010. Several are in the planning stages, however in the southwestern United States and around the world.

Chapter-2 Literature Review
2.1 Literature Review
• In 1816, Robert Sterling invented the Sterling engine, a device with cyclic compression and expansion of the working fluid at different temperature levels (Patent No. 4081, 1816).

• This operation, the Sterling cycle, is also known as a closed regenerative thermodynamic cycle, and a net conversion of M c H u g h | 6 heat to work is accomplished by the volume change regulating the flow (Thombare;Verma, 2006).

• The four thermodynamic processes that make up this Sterling cycle consists of isothermal expansion due to heat from an external source (1), constant volume heat removal (2), isothermal compression (3), and constant-volume heat addition (4); each part of the cycle is represented by the corresponding numbers in Figure 1. Low-power range solar thermal conversion units consist of three main sub-systems: the solar receiver, the thermodynamic gas circuit, and the drive mechanism.

• Sterling engines are considered among the most effective of these units and improvements in performance can be made based on changes in the main sub-systems (Mancini ; Heller, 2003). The following literature review explores previous studies on the development of various Sterling engine configurations, the variables that effect the engine performance, and the Sterling cycle along with its operational characteristics

Figure3. Idealized Sterling cycle represented in a pressure vs. volume graph.

• The main focus of the research will be optimizing a solar powered modification of the base Sterling engine.
• The solar powered Sterling engine was patented in 1987 by Roelf J. Meijer.
• Using a large dish facing the sun, the rays of sunlight can be reflected onto a focus point at the center of the dish tocollect solar energy as a source of heat.

• The heat then powers the Sterling engine connected to the solar dish collector and produces electricity, which makes the system a viable alternative energy source (Patent No. 4707990, 1987).

• The development of the solar powered Sterling engine began as Ford Motor Company obtained a worldwide exclusive license to research almost all applications of the Sterling engine from N.V. Philips of the Netherlands.

• Philips worked on making Sterling engines for the Ford Torino vehicles, however, the project ended early and the work continued instead at Sterling Thermal Motors, Inc. (Meijer ;Godett, 1987).

The solar powered Sterling engine has other applications as a pump, which is important as it is cost effective and can be used for water pumping in areas of the world where there is low access to clean water.

• Pumping systems employed in sunbelt countries have a maximum water cost target of 6 cents/m3 , as set by the World Bank based on their study demonstrating photovoltaic pumping systems currently cost 8.4 cents/m3 and gasoline pumping systems at 8.58 cents/m3 .

• SunventionSunpulse Water has designed and constructed a prototype solar thermal water pump as seen in Figure 4, which consists of a solar collector directly coupled to a slow-speed Sterling engine that can be coupled to the water pump, or anything else that requires mechanical power.

• TÜV labs assessed the Sunvention system and found it works at a cost of 2.4 cents/m3 – an amount that meets the World Bank target. This means there are a large number of applications for the solar powered Sterling engine outside of electricity production and water pumping, since it can serve as an air pump for fish farms or to fulfill mechanical requirements such as milling, grinding, and compressing (Ardron, 2010).

Figure 4. SunPulse Water connected to the India Mark.

Engine Configuration

• The drive mechanism is important to consider when choosing an engine configuration because it is not compatible with every arrangement. The primary role of the drive mechanism is to reproduce the volumetric changes that occur in order to maintain the heat transfer, gas dynamic, and thermodynamic engine requirements (Thombare;Verma, 2006).

• The parameters to consider when choosing an engine configuration are important for optimization of performance. Gary Wood (Wood, Chagnot, ;Penswick, 1980) of Sun-Power Corp.

• Lists the required parameters to consider: engine cylinder layout, engine mechanism, burner or heater type, displacer and piston construction, type and size of regenerator, and crankshaft construction. Other basic parameters to consider include speed, displacement, and the Beale number, which is used to characterize the performance of Sterling engines by estimating the power output of a design based on pressure, piston volume, and engine cycle frequency (Beale, Wood,Chagnot, 1980).

• There are three levels of classifications for Sterling engine designs: mode of operation, forms of cylinder coupling, and forms of piston coupling. According to Senft (2001), these parameters will determine the optimum engine geometry.

• Mode of operation. The modes of operation include single acting, double acting, single phase, multiphase, resonant, and non-resonant. A broad classification of Sterling engines only differentiates between single and double acting.

• A single side of the piston is in contact with the working fluid, which is moved from one cylinder to a second cylinder in single acting engines as invented by Robert Sterling in 1816.

• Multiple working spaces are used in the double acting engine, which moves the working fluid through the use of both sides of the piston as invented by Babcock in 1885 (Thombare;Verma, 2006). Finkelstein (1960) has described numerous arrangements and concepts for multi-cylinder operation. Multi-cylinder engines are necessary in doubling acting arrangements because the appropriate difference between the expansion and compression processes can only be obtained with a minimum of three cylinders (Thombare;Verma, 2006).

• United Sterling designed a 40 kW four-cylinder double acting Sterling engine with the objective of component development. Different heater head temperatures and different working gases were used in the testing of the engine.

• The United Sterling P’ series established by Bratt (1980) is the most manufactured and developed doubling acting Sterling engine

Forms of cylinder coupling.

? There are three different forms of cylinder coupling: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma. The simplest Sterling engine configuration is the Alpha engine (Figure 3), which consists of two pistons: compression and expansion.

? The hot piston used for expansion is connected in series to a heater, a regenerator, a cooler, and the cold piston used for compression. Both pistons need to be sealed in order to contain the working gas, which is a disadvantage to the configuration (Thombare&Verma, 2006).

? The classic Ross-Yoke drive and the balanced “Rocker-V” mechanism are innovative Alpha engine designs by Ross that are used as small air engines (U.S. Patent No. 4138897, 1979). Beta engines (Figure 4) are constructed so the piston and displacer are within the same cylinder.

? Separate linkages may connect the two pieces to a crankshaft to maintain the phase angle that is required instead of having the piston and displacer physically touch.

? The top of the power piston and the bottom of the displacer form the compression space in Beta engines. The Gamma engine (Figure 5) has the advantage of utilizing a simple crank mechanism with the displace cylinder, cooler, heater, regenerator, and compression cylinder connected serially.

? The displacer-piston arrangement is similar to the Beta engine configuration as separate cylinders are used to house each piece. An interconnecting transfer port joins the two cylinders, which share the compression space (Thombare&Verma, 2006).

Fig.5 alpha,beta and gamma configuration sterling engine.

Forms of piston coupling.

• The slider crank drive is used in twin cylinder versions of the Stirling engine due to how easy it is to manufacture and how reliable it has proven to be.
• However, it is nearly impossible to balance and the linkage does not take care of the drive mechanism problem that occurs when the displacer and the piston are used in tandem in a cylinder (Thombare&Verma, 2006).
• Philip (1987) developed the rhombic drive in the 1950s, which is dynamically balanced even in an arrangement with a single cylinder making it the most well known and most developed of single cylinder Sterling engines.

• Each assembly requires matching gear wheels, numerous moving parts, and bearing surfaces causing the complexity of the unit to be its main disadvantage (Philip, 1987). The swash plate is a dynamically balanced system at a fixed swash plate angle, and is mainly used in automobile engines.

• Varying the angle of the swash plate creates an unbalanced effect, and also changes the stroke of the engine, therefore providing control of the power output of the engine. Meijer (1958) invented the method of changing the swash plate angle during operation.

• Related forms of piston coupling include the Ross rocker and ringbom type. Cambridge University is investigating the use of the Ross rocker mechanism in Sterling engines (U.S. Patent No. 4138897, 1979) while the ringbom has a displacer driven by the cyclic gas forces and a piston that is linked to the crankshaft mechanically (Beale, Wood, &Chagnot, 1980).

• Aside from the mentioned rigid forms of piston couplings there are gas forms such as free piston, free displacer, and free cylinder, and there are liquid forms such as jet stream, rocking beam, and pressure feedback (Thombare&Verma, 2006).

• Operational characteristic: dead volumes. The un-swept volumes in a Sterling engine are called dead volumes and can account for up to 50% of the total engine internal gas volume (Thombare&Verma, 2006). The power output will increase as the swept volumes increase as long as the other factors, such as temperature and pressure, remain the same.
• The power output of the engine is reduced by the amount of dead volume, however, the reduction in efficiency is dependent on the location of the dead volumes.

• The optimal amount of dead volume must allow for sufficient heat transfer surfaces and must accommodate the heat exchangers (Wu et al., 1998)

Development of the Solar Powered Sterling Engine

• The first era of solar powered Sterling engines.

• Ericsson adapted the Sterling engine to work with solar energy in 1870 using parabolic trough collectors to heat steam and drive the engine after his initial invention of a solar-powered hot air engine that used a reflector to heat the displacer cylinder in 1864 (Rizzo, 1997; Jordan &Ibele, 1955; Spencer, 1989; Ericsson, 1870; Daniels, 1964).

• The first solar powered hot air engine was built in 1872 by Ericsson using a spherical mirror concentrator on an open-cycle hot air engine (Spencer, 1989).

• There were not many solar powered Sterling engines built during this time, instead Reader and Hooper proposed its use in a water pumping system in 1908 (Reader & Hooper, 1983).

• The second era of solar powered Sterling engines. In India, an open cycle solar powered Sterling engine using a parabolic collector was implemented by Ghai and Khanna from 1950 to 1955; however, there were issues with heat loss (Walpita, 1983; Spencer, 1989; Daniels, 1964). There was also a water pumping 100 W solar powered Sterling engine described by Jordan and Ibele in 1955.

Chapter-3 Plan of Work

3.1 Construction of a sterling engine

3.1.1 Introduction of sterling engine with parameter and its construction: –
The Sterling engine is being proposed for many small (10 to 100 kW) solar power applications because of its potential high cycle efficiency (see Bowyer, 1984).
In fact, ideally, a Sterling cycle engine can be designed to have the same efficiency as the ideal Carnot cycle engine. cycle efficiency is of prime importance to solar power cycle design because of the reduction in collector area (and thus cost) for a given power output.
Most proposed Sterling applications are for small (10 to 100 kW) engines placed at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. This is, because, in small module applications, the real efficiency of Rankine cycle engines is seriously degraded, drawing the solar power system designer toward the high efficiency potential of the Sterling engine in this size range.
The Ideal Cycle.
The ideal Sterling cycle combines four processes, two constant-temperature processes and two constant-volume processes. These processes are shown on pressure-volume and temperature-entropy coordinates in Fig. Work is done on, or produced by the cycle only during the constant-temperature processes; however, heat must be transferred during all four processes.
Rather than a working fluid that changes phase during the processes, gases are normally employed as the Sterling cycle working fluid. The process lines in Fig. reflect the properties of an ideal gas.

Fig.7The four processes of an ideal Sterling engine cycle.
In the ideal cycle, heat is rejected and work is done on the working fluid during the isothermal compression
? process 1-2. For a fixed mass of working fluid, the amount of total work required for this process is represented by the area 1-2 – b- a on the pressure-volume (p-v) diagram and the amount of heat transferred from the working fluid, by area 1-2-b-a on the temperature-entropy (T s) diagram. The next process is the constant-volume heat addition
? process (2-3), where the temperature is raised from TL to TH and there is no work done. The heat addition is represented by the area 2- 3-c- b in the T s diagram. Following this is the constant-temperature expansion
? process (3-4), where work is done by the working fluid as heat is added. The work is represented by the area b-3-4- a in the p ? diagram and the heat addition by area c- 3- 4- d in the T-s diagram. The cycle is closed by a constant-volume heat rejection
? process (4- 1), where no work is done and the heat rejected is represented by area a-1- 4- d in the T-s diagram.
Because more work is done by expanding a gas at high temperature than is required to compress the same amount of gas at a low temperature, the Sterling cycle produces a net amount of work.
The net work is represented by area 1-2-3-4 in the p v diagram in Figure 12.22. By the first law of thermodynamics, this is also the net amount of heat that must be added to the cycle to produce this work. This net amount of heat is represented by the area 1-2-3-4 in the T-s diagram.
The only difference between the Sterling and Carnot cycles is that for the Carnot cycle there is no heat transfer during processes 2-3 and 4- 1.
Because these processes represent an equal amount of heating and cooling of the working fluid with no work involved, a regenerator may be used that saves the heat represented by area 1-4- e in the T-s diagram and transfers it to the working fluid during the compression process 2-3 as represented by area 2-3- f on the same diagram.
By eliminating the need to transfer heat from an external source at temperatures other than the maximum and minimum cycle temperatures, the regenerative Sterling cycle will have (in the ideal case) the same efficiency as a Carnot cycle.
The amount of work and heat transfer for each process of an ideal Sterling cycle with regeneration may be described for a fixed mass of an ideal gas. For the compression heat rejection process (1 2), the work done on the gasis
(3.1.1)
Where, p is the pressure, V is the total volume, TL is the cycle low temperature, R is the universal gas constant, the molecular weight of the gas, and m is the mass. The value will be negative because of the sign convention that work done on the cycle is negative. The amount of heat transfer for this process is the same since there is no change of temperature of the gas:
(3.1.2)
Similarly, for the high-temperature expansion process

(3.1.3)
And,
(3.1.4)
Where, this time the quantity is positive since Equations (3.1.3) and (3.1.4) represent work done by the system and heat added to the system.
The total heat that must be saved and transferred by the regenerator is
(3.1.5)
Where, cv, is the specific heat at constant volume of that particular gas per unit mass.
The net work produced by the cycle is,
(3.1.6)
and it can be shown by combining Equations (3.1.6) and (3.1.4), that the cycle efficiency reduces to,
(3.1.7)
Which, is exactly the Carnot cycle efficiency.

Block Diagram of Parabolic Dish Sterling Engine:

Sun Rays Concentration Dish Arduino Circuit

Receiver
Displacer, Piston

Generator

3.1.2 principal of sterling engine with parabolic mirror
The fixed amount of gases is enclosed in medium and they can never escape out of it. Pressure of gas inside the cylinder changes due to various events like heating from outside sources etc. which causes this engine to work . There are some properties of gasses that are importent. the normal operation of Sterling engines:
• If we have a fixed amount of gas in a fixed volume of space and we raise the temperature of that gas, the pressure will also increase.
• If we have a fixed amount of gas and we compress it (decrease the volume of its space), the temperature of that gas will increase.

? It is important to understand that solar thermal technology is not the same as solar panel, or photovoltaic, technology. Solar thermal electric energy generation concentrates the light from the sun to create heat, and that heat is used to run a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. The working fluid that is heated by the concentrated sunlight can be a liquid or a gas. Different working fluids include water, oil, salts, air, nitrogen, helium, etc. Different engine types include steam engines, gas turbines, Stirling engines, etc. All of these engines can be quite efficient, often between 30% and 40%, and are capable of producing 10’s to 100’s of megawatts of power.

? Photovoltaic, or PV energy conversion, on the other hand, directly converts the sun’s light into electricity. This means that solar panels are only effective during daylight hours because storing electricity is not a particularly efficient process. Heat storage is a far easier and efficient method, which is what makes solar thermal so attractive for large-scale energy production.

? Heat can be stored during the day and then converted into electricity at night. Solar thermal plants that have storage capacities can drastically improve both the economics and the dispatchability of solar electricity.

Chapter-4 Design Analysis and Design Methodology

4.1 Material or part of sterling engine

The part of the sterling engine were manufactured in the machine shop in the paeroace and mechanical engineering building at the university of arizone .the 23 arts constructed for the sterling engine were made form a varifiey as listed in table.the engine part material were cut from aluminium ,brass,steel.

Part NameMaterial
Gudgeon Block aluminum rod
Crank Web aluminum rod
Bearing Plate 21 aluminum stock
Bearing Plate 22 aluminum stock
Alcohol Burner Cap brass
Power Cylinder brass
Main Bearing Bushings (2) brass
Flywheel brass casting
Connector Link brass hex stock
Transfer Piston Guide brass hex stock
Cylinder Plate brass stock
Power Connecting Lever brass stock
lever connector brass stock
lever 11 brass stock
lever 12 brass stock

Power Piston cold rolled steel
Lever Shaft drill rod
Displacer Piston Rod drill rod
Crank Pin drill rod
Crank Web Shaft drill rod
Displacer Cylinder stainless steel
Displacer Piston stainless steel
Base zinc/aluminum casting

Tablel 1. Sterling engine part material list

Sterling Engine Parts and Assembly Procedure

? The parts of the Sterling engine were constructed according to the plans laid by Morris (1996) with some modifications. Dimensional changes were made to the displacer cylinder(3.38″ to 6.00″), displacer piston (2.00″ to 5.00″), and connecting rod (2.75″ to 5.75″) and can be viewed in Figure.
? This was done in order to accommodate the focal length range of 4.5″ to 5″ of the parabolic dish used as a solar collector (Figure) and make sure that the sunlight is focused on the cylinder end that needs to be heated.
The base of the model was also modified to be the appropriate size with a 1024 screw hole to attach to the Viltrox VX-18 heavy duty tripod that served as a mount and a way to angle the dish and cylinder towards the sun.
Characteristics for future optimization testing may include observing the changes in efficiency based on the angle of the Sterling engine, dead volumes, different displacer sizes, and the use of a regenerator along with various regenerator materials.

Fig.11Sterling engine model with extended displacer cylinder length
Measurements and Calculations
Temperature and speed. The temperature (°F) of the cylinder end and the air between the cooling fins was measured at intervals of 5 seconds over the duration of 300 seconds total using a digital multi meter with a thermocouple placed at the cylinder end or between the cooling fins.
The speed (revolutions per minute, rpm) of the flywheel was measured at the same intervals and recorded using a tachometer focused on a reflective point on the black taped flywheel.
Higher revolutions per minute served as the base level to judge the efficiency of each Sterling engine modification.

Fig.13Neiko tachometer

Result:
? Measurements were taken without the parabolic dish attached, but instead with a butane torch to optimize engine performance before changing the heat source. Data was collected at 5 second intervals for both temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, °F (Figure) and speed in revolutions per minute, rpm (Figure) with the heat extinguished after 100 seconds.

Discussion
Solar Dish Findings

? The modified design of the Sterling engine was successful in running provided the appropriate amount of heat, however, further changes could lead to a higher efficiency.
? Measurements with the solar dish revealed that the focal point of the parabolic mirror was between 4.5″ to 5″ resulting in a 135°F average cylinder temperature, which is not sufficient to power the Sterling engine.
? Research will continue during the summer to optimize the system. The plan is to accommodate the extra 1″ length of cylinder by adding spacers between the cooling fins and the parabolic mirror so that the end of the cylinder is hit directly by the UV radiation focused at that point 4.5″ out from the 1.13″ diameter center hole of the dish.

Future Implications
In April 2016, 175 countries signed the United Nations (UN) Paris Climate Agreement back in agreeing that each nation would develop and submit their own national climate actions that would take effect in 2020.
Twelve of the UN’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals address climate change with the goal to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees (UN, 2016).
Each community can take part in addressing their individual, unique climate issues and contribute towards the global cause of mitigating climate change. There is a need to start looking at renewable and alternative energy sources to protect our environmental future. Arizona is an ideal location to implement solar Sterling engine technology on a wide scale using the sun to generate electricity in a more efficient manner.
Maricopa Solar maintained Sterling engine units provided by Sterling Energy Systems designed in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories. These were in use for several years and produced 1.5 MW of energy at 26% efficiency, which is one of the best solar power options compared to the about 16% efficiency of parabolic troughs or photovoltaic panels (NREL, 2013).
The production of photovoltaic panels includes critical materials such as indium and other rare earth materials that are unsustainable sources, and PVs do not allow thermal energy storage like concentrated solar power so they cannot work beyond the daytime.
The U.S. Department of Energy Sun Shot Initiative aims to make solar power nationally competitive with other forms of renewable energy technology without subsidies by 2020. The concentrated solar power section of the Sun Shot review meeting program states that their goal is “to innovate and develop next-generation CSP technologies for low-cost collectors, high-temperature receivers and high-efficiency dry-cooled power cycles to meet the aggressive technical targets of Sun Shot” with “up to $55 million over 3 years in 21projects at companies, universities and national laboratories” including the University of Arizona (Pitchumani, 2013).

The World Coal Association (WCA) website states that at our current rates of production wehave enough coal reserves to last us about 110 years, with only 52 years for oil reserves and 54 years for gas reserves (WCA, 2017).
Here in Arizona, the sun is a great choice of renewable energy source as it is reliable here most of the year. Photovoltaic panels remain the best residential choice for solar power generation, however, concentrated solar power Sterling engines are the most efficient choice for large scale power plants and fulfill our need for an alternative energy source in the near future.
With the involvement of the University of Arizona in the Department of Energy’s Sun Shot Initiative, Tucson has the opportunity to be a leader in this change and continue its commitment to solar power which earned it the status as a U.S. Department of Energy Solar America City (City of Tucson, n.d.).
.

Chapter-5 Implementation and Canvas Presentation
5.1 AEIOU Summary

Fig: AEIOU SUMMERY

In AEIOU Summary, there are five topics available in full length canvas sheet. And they are as follows:

? Environment: – According to this topic we found some general impressions and observations related to our project title. And we noted some special elements and features.

? Interaction: – In this topic we consider some interactions between tool and material or job sterling engine with parabolic mirror.

? Objects: – The objective optimization used different variables: heat source temperature, hot working fluid temperature, temperature ratio, and irreversible property. They found the dish-Sterling thermal efficiency to be between 35% and 40% while Sterling engine thermal efficiency was between 40% and 45%

? Activity: – This point represents our activity and what we have done in our project .many activities like search through internet, books and choosing
different guiding mechanism we have done which is re present through this project.

? Users: – In this point we found some users which are directly or indirectly connected with our sterling engineparabolic mirror and who are used properly.

EMPATHY CANVAS

Fig.3.2 EMPATHY CANVAS
This canvas sheet represent about our project design. In this sheet three points involved and they are as follows: user, stakeholders and story boarding. According to this canvas we think about some user and stakeholders who is connected with our project or mechanism. This sheet also shows some happy and sad story about our project.

? 5.3 Ideation canvas: –

Fig.3.3 IDEATION CANVAS
This canvas sheet is about innovative ideas and many points are considering in this canvas sheet and they are as follows: people, activity, situation/context/Location, and objects/equipment/Tool. According to this sheet we found some people who are directly involved in our project

5.4 Product Development Canvas: – Fig.3.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS
According to this canvas, our project related development and progress are considered in this canvas sheet.
This sheet shows our project purpose, features, and function. Also considered about customer revalidation.

Chapter-6 Conclusion Or Summary Of Result

Conclusion

? The solar powered Sterling engine has the potential to be an alternative technology that help paves the road towards sustainable ways of generating power and energy.

? Underdeveloped, arid regions of the world could use the Sterling engine to pump clean water for irrigation or air for other types of agriculture with the additional benefit of the engine being able to serve other mechanical needs. Increasing interest and awareness of climate change related issues gives the opportunity for a larger variety of renewable energy technologies to be developed and suit the needs of the local environment.

? Here in Arizona, the region is very suitable for the solar powered Sterling engine technology to be used on a large scale in providing electricity. The Sterling engine constructed for this project was able to run and with the modifications made to the solar dish, the system as a whole can be put together and solar power will be used as the heat source instead.

? Further modifications to the solar powered Sterling engine can then be made to optimize its performance. Already one of the most efficient forms of solar energy conversion, the sterling engine is an older technology that is being reapplied in ways that contribute to the growthof sustainable technology

Summary data
? The data in the graphs of Figure, represent the measurements taken of the prototype Sterling engine as the solar powered Sterling engine was completed, however, not yet ready for testing due to some adjustments in design that are to be made.
? In Figure, the temperatures between the cooling fins for both trials were consistently between 160°F to 180°F. The temperature plots for the cylinder trials all have the same downward concave parabolic shape starting and ending between 300°F and 350°F with a peak between 450°F and 500°F.
? In the speed trials depicted in Figure .the lines all take a similar form, however, trial 1 is an outlier with the peaks and sinks during the first 60 seconds of testing likely due to human error in recording data for the first trial.
? The four other trials all show the speed slowly and steadily increasing over time with some variations, and then a sharp drop in rpm after 105 seconds, which is 5 seconds after the heat source was extinguished.
? Due to the facts that there is not much collected data at the moment and that these numbers are from the prototype model rather than the solar powered Sterling engine leaves little room for commentary on the efficiency of the engine or the effects of the modifications on optimization. The engine works consistently with a heat source that is hot enough, and further work on the solar dish modification will allow for the desired result of a working solar powered Sterling engine.

Results

? The solar powered sterling has the potential to be an alternatoivetechanology that help paves road towards sustainable ways of ganarating power and energy .

? Under developed,arid region of the word could use sterling engine parabolic to pump clean water for irrigation of air for other tyes of sgricultur with the additional benefit to the engine being able to serve othermecanical need In addition, the unfolding of the sheets shows that landscape orientation gives lower number of sheet hence lower cost of the reflective surface.

? The focal to diameter ratio is selected to be 0.3 and three different diameters; 5, 10 and 20 m are investigated.The presented results reveal a robust design of the dish concentrator that can deal with various applied forces and weights to provide the minimum possible cost.

? The methodology applied in the present study can be extended to any proposed dish diameter. The future plan is to integrate the dish with a converting unit such as Sterling engine and consider the vibration resulting from the engine operation with possible application to larger diameters.further modification to the solar powered sterling engine can then be made to optimize its performance.already one of the most efficient forms of solar energy conversion , the sterling engine is an older technology that is being reapplied in ways that contribute to the growth of sustainable technology.

Chapter-7 Reference

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10 Manukaji JU, Akinbode FO. Design and performance analysis of a solar cookerusing Fresnel re?ectors. Spect J 2002;9(1).
11 Da?e VR, Shinde NN. Design, development & performance evaluation ofconcentratingmonoaxialSchef?er technology for water heating and lowtemperature industrial steam application. Int J Eng Res Appl (IJERA) 2012;2(6):848–52.
12 Sakhare V, Kapatkar VN. Experimental analysis of parabolic solar dish withcopper helical coil receiver. Int J Innov Res AdvEng (IJIRAE) 2014;1(8):199–204.
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