Review of Related Literature and Studies This chapter presents a review of some definition of punctuation marks which have relevance to study

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Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter presents a review of some definition of punctuation marks which have relevance to study.

Literature Review
In this study, the researcher shows the definition and theory in literature review. It have the write some definition of punctuation marks that taken from the some of Researcher.

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English Punctuation
According to Jones (1994)”Punctuation as we consider it, can be defined as the central part of the range on non-lexical orthography.” Non-Lexical orthography it is the system of writing convention used to represent spoken English in written form. That allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning. Although arguments could be made for including the sub-lexical marks.

Writing is an outward expression of what is going on in the writer’s mind.”Writing is the visual medium through which graphical and grammatical system of a language is manifested.” Another statement in writing ability can be formed as teachers and philosophy of writing taken into consideration characteristics of learners and aims in a given contex.
However writing also can improve the grammatical and lexical accuracy in writing English. Writing skills are an important part of communication. In writing requires to know the factors that influence both its process and product.
Punctuation and capitalization are basic,surface features of written communication. However,it was not until the nineteenth century that authorities recognized that punctuation marks should be primarily an integral part of the sentencepattern,not an indicator or pauses. Throughout the literature on punctuation two major purposes are recure to ring together and to separate. More recently,five major purposes for punctuation have been identified to terminate and separate,to combine and separate,to introduce,to enclose,and to indicate.

Error Analysis
Errors are something usual done by the learners who are learning process.
They are usually made many mistakes in writing process. Also to know the students difficulties in writing, the teacher required the investigation of the errors by analyzing the sources of errors. The one way to identify student’s error analysis method.
According to Gass and Slinker the error analysis is a type of linguistic analysis which focus on the errors made by the learners. It starts from the learner production data. The comparison is between the learners error in producing the target language and the target language itself. There are some steps in the conducting an error analysis.
1. Collecting Data
2. Identify Errors
3. Classify Errors
4. Quantify Errors
5. Analyze Sources
6. Remediate

Mistakes and Error
Mistake and error has roughly the same meaning which is to analyze learners language and apply error analysis both have differences. Therefore, the researcher provides some definition of mistakes and error as here below:

A. Mistake are the division that occurs because of the influence of the situation in language learners.
Mistake are no significant to the process of language learning. However, the problem of determining what learner’s mistake is and what is learners error is one of the some difficulty and involves much more.
According to Brown, a mistake refers to a performance error that is either a random guess or a slip and that is a failure to utilize and known system correctly.
Mistake reflect occasional lapses in performance they occur because in particular instance the learner is unable to perform what he or she knows. From opinions above we can learn that mistake is caused by learner so that the mistake can be corrected by the learners so that the mistake can be corrected by the learners with concentrate.

Knowing learner’s error will provide useful evidence of the system of the language.
For beginner learner certainly they do not understand how to learn language so the teachers are very active to help students with knowing errors made by learners and follow the development of learner’s toward to the purpose of learning language.
Ellis, stated that error reflect gap in learner’s knowledge which arises because the learner does not know what is correct. And meanwhile brown explain error as an idiosyncrasies in the language of the of the learner that are direct a system within which is learner is operating at the time. An error is noticeable deviation from the native grammar to reflect the competence of the learner.
Error take place when learner has incorporated a particular erroneous from perspective target of language into his or her system. From the information above, we can know that error is the deviation that occurs because language learners do not understand the rules of the language learners do not understand the rules of the language it can be helped by the teacher who provide additional exercise.


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