A Study of teacher’s perception about CALL at secondary level
Madam Asma Kashif Shehzad
Area of Research
COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus
Perception of teachers about (CALL) Computer Assisted Language Learning at secondary level
IntroductionIn this project, we will give an introduction about (CALL) ‘Computer Assisted Language Learning” which is conducted in the school at secondary level.
The main aim of CALL is to teach and learn language through computer. There are many studies that have been done to reveal the significance of CALL.
What is CALL?
“CALL is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learn, usually including a substantial interactive element.”
CALL can be defined as: Learners learning language in any context with through and around the computer (Egbert 2005).
CALL is a broader term and everything that we teach and learn from computer comes under the shade of CALL. CALL is very beneficial in language teaching and learning context and it can improve all the four skills of language, (Listening, speaking, reading, writing).
“The search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning.” (Levy, 1997, p1).
Technology has developed in a rapid way. Computer technology is one of the most important components of the electronics technologies. Computer technology has been common in educational context over recent years (Riling 2000).
In recent times, computer has become smaller, faster, and easier for the non-specialist to use (Levy, 1997, p1).
There are various types of using educational technology in the process of foreign language learning and teaching. Using these affective technologies has become a trend in language learning and teaching especially in (EFL). Education is one of the field that include technological advances. Due to its rapid growth, technology has come into use by foreign/ second language teachers and student as a modern approach to enhance teachers and student’scompetencies for teaching and learning foreign/second language.
Now a day in most of the educational institutions in many developing countries over the world have evolved and changed their style of learning and teaching (EFL) throughout the use of various kinds of technology. Because technology has become major component of the educational curriculum. However, in same universities and schools in developing countries, traditional approaches remain the focus of foreign language teaching (Farid;Motachareh 2014; Hawker 2010, Martin 2004, Sumaya 2010, Tuncok 2010).
In this study we will investigate the attitude or perception of teachers about CALL at secondary level. Teachers have different attitudes towards integrating technology into their classrooms. Integration and utilizing technology in the classes has become a significant aspect of successful teaching and learning as a foreign/second language.
It seems that most of the universities in Pakistan make use of CALL for language teaching and learning purposes and it is the common observation that most of the teachers and students in schools do not use CALL. The study conducted in secondary level school. We are living in the age of science and technology. Modern generation takes lot of interest in using technology. So, it is need of time to integrate technology in language learning to make learning more beneficial and interesting.
In this study, we will determine the impact of CALL on the students learning in English language. We will be evaluating the standard of education and performance of CALL at secondary level. We will be analyses also that CALL is the source of improving English learning skills of students then why some teachers do not use CALL. We will investigate what are the technical barriers that do not allow the teachers to use CALL in the secondary schools.
Background of the studyWith the change of time and technology in 21st century, the teaching and learning process have also been changed. New portable and electronic devices have taken place of old textbooks (ICCSE, 2014). SO, in this project we will introduce an emerging paradigm “CALL”. CALL means Computer Assisted Language Learning.
Involvement of the student for learning is necessary and computer assisted language learning provides the opportunity for the students to directly get involved in language learning process. Student to learn their language according to their pace and available time. They can get assistance from computer at their school and home too.
CALL emerged in twentieth century but still it is not clear that when the term CALL first appeared. CALL origins and development track back to the 1960’s and since has consisted of symbiotic relationship between development of technology and pedagogy. Its development can be divided into three phases: behavior CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL.
CALI (Computer Assisted Language Instruction) was incorporated into the name of professional association CALI Co (Computer Assisted Language Instructed Consortium) which was founded in United States in 1982 (Davies, Otto and Ruschoff 2012, p20). It appears that CALL originated in United Kingdom and it focused on students rather than instructions. By the 1982 the term CALL was in widespread use in United Kingdom. The use of CALL create interest among the students and they learn quickly as compared to the traditional lecture methods. In developing countries, it is need of the hour to use CALL properly in the classrooms.
In this project we will find out the benefits of CALL on students learning language. This study aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges that are hurdle in using CALL. Actually, the main significant of this study is to overcome these issues and we can bring positive changing on students learning and teacher’s teaching methods. We will also investigate the perception or attitude of teachers about CALL.
Problem statementCALL is important phenomena in educational institutions. Now a days, the advantages of computer assisted language learning may be universally accepted (Levy 1997; Warchauer; Kern 2000). But how effective it can be in the actual teaching-learning process is yet to be explained.
CALL is a newer field and it is advantageous for language teaching and learning. It is observed that teachers at secondary level do not use CALL. The current study is an attempt to investigate the perception or attitude of teachers about CALL and to highlight that barriers that do not allow teachers to use CALL at secondary level. It seems, and previous researches revealed that teachers are positive towards of CALL because of its advantages but it seems that there are some challenges that do not allow the teachers to use CALL in their classrooms. The study is beneficial for the teachers and researchers because it identifies the problems or challenges. This study will make teachers able to remove challenges and barriers. There are some factors that seriously effect teacher’s viewpoint on technology integration.
Therefor it is worth investigating the effectiveness of such CALL programs on the performance of learners.
Research QuestionsResearch question is a fundamental core of research project, study, or review of a literature. The following research questions will be answered in this research.
What are the teachers’ perceptions towards using CALL at secondary level?
What are the technical barriers that do not allow teachers to use CALL at secondary level?
Research objectivesObjective means something that you are trying to achieve. It is purpose of study.
This study will be conducted to explore specific and time bound objectives given below:
To explore the teachers’ perceptions towards using CALL at secondary level.
To investigate the technical barriers that do not allow teachers to use CALL at secondary level.
Significance of the studyThe current study is very significant for teachers, student and for linguists because it identifies the challenges in using CALL. This study will provide an added value to the teachers as well as students. By use of the study, they will be able to give better performance and they can find out solutions of the challenges that are being faced by the language teachers. In this way they can make language context more interesting and beneficial. Significance of current study is directly connected with importance of CALL. CALL has gained a lot of importance in modern era because of its easy and multi-dimensional advantages.
Technology reduces burden of teacher and now it is easier for them to teach as compare to the traditional lecture method teaching. This study solves the student’s problems and overcome student’s fear. It will encourage the students and teachers. In this way they can directly interact with the native speakers of target language and can get knowledge about their culture. By this project we will be able to introduce the right method of using CALL to motivation behind this project will be supporting the efforts to reduce the negative attitude of teachers about using CALL. This study promotes the awareness of teachers about CALL and quality of CALL.
Delimitation of the studyThe study will be limited because we just investigated the perceptions or attitudes of teachers about CALL and will identify the barriers of using technology at secondary level from district Vehari schools run by government that have well established labs and all facilities of technological era. This study will not investigate proper solution. This study will highlight some of the barriers and further studies are needed to prescribe solution of challenges.
The study will be limited to the teachers of government schools from district Vehari male and female teachers considered for the study.Definition of key termsApplied research
Applied research is a type of research that is used to answer a specific question. This is a type of research that solves the problem
Basic research is a type of research that is conducted purely by curiosity and a desire to expand our knowledge.
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
Computer assisted instruction is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
The search for and study of application on the computer in language teaching and learning (Levy, 1997, p1).
The expressions of thoughts by means of studies (Henry Sweet – The history of language)
The target language is a language that learners are studying and also individuals items of language that they want to learn.
Literature reviewLiterature review provides a theoretical background to our study. It brings clarity and focus to our research problems, improves our research methodology and broadens our knowledge (Kumar, 2014).
CALL is defined as:
“The search for the study of application of the computer in language teaching and learning (Davis, 2012).”
Ahmed (1985) argued that in the late 1960s and early 1970s rapid development in computer technology urged linguistics and literary researchers to use computer which aid the foundation for using computers in language teaching and learnings. CALL as a term come into favor in the 1980s replacing CALI (Computer Assisted Language Instruction) which was a teacher-centered approach rather than a student-centered approach. CALL widened its scope by using the communicative approach in a range of new technologies. Now it includes highly interactive and communicative support for listening, speaking, reading and writing skills including extensive use of multimedia and Internet resources (Devies, 2012).
The current study is an attempt to find out the challenges that do not allow the school teachers to use CALL in their classrooms. This chapter deal with some literature that has been written on the current topic and on the CALL as a whole. Technology has developed in the recent decades and it has affected almost every field of life because it is easy to use and it’s for reaching benefits. Developed countries rely more on technology and use it in every field of life. On the other hand, developing countries are unable to utilize the technology in every field of life because of lack of resources.
By this project we will be able to get teachers perception about CALL at secondary level. CALL is a newer field. Before the CALL different researchers have got different attitude of teachers about CALL and barriers that do not allow them to use CALL with different perspective.
Recent educational research has examined different perceptions about CALL. Hubbard and Levy (2006) argued that a teacher must be able to understand the environment of the class, its limitation and opportunities for learning providing teachers with training on a regular basis can help them in learning and understanding the information. Along with training teachers in different field of CALL. It was necessary to teach them current teaching methodologies and approaches.
Johnson and Kongrith (2007), too, stressed upon the role of classroom management which could yield negative results if CALL was poorly managed.
Describing the uses of computers in language teaching, Soos (2010) argued using computer could generate a project-based learning environment that enable hands-on experience. The use of CALL in project-based learning can encourage critical thinking for students and lead to greater educational knowledge.
Egbert and Handson-Smith (1999) inducted the environmental friendliness of computer by saving paper. They have also mentioned the benefits of using computer for teachers by ensuring the privacy or security of important records for the class.
Warshaur and Healey pointed out that CALL had been divided into three main approaches. These approaches had different uses and perspective. The first approach wasbehaviouritic CALL which was primarily used for grammar instruction or translation tests. Bullet (2010) mentioned that the behavioristic use of CALL which started in the 960s and 1970s mainly focused on students’ behavior and learning through drilling. The second approach the communicative use of CALL, encouraged student to think about the appropriate use of form, which made it different from the behaviorist approach. The third approach, integrative CALL, focused more on using technology to encourage and enable the actual use of language. By this project we will be able to investigate the main and technical barriers that do not allow the teachers to use computer at secondary level. Many researches had been investigated that teachers have different attitudes towards integrating technology into their classrooms integration and utilizing technology in the classes has become a significant aspect of successful teaching and learning second language.
Almehkhlafi and Almeqdadi (2010), state that some of EFL teachers prefer utilizing and integrating technology in their classes for EFL teaching because it accelerates their ability to teach a foreign and second language while others think that there is no need to incorporating technology in their teaching.
There are some factors that seriously effect teacher’s viewpoint on technology integration. Mohammadi and Samadi (2014) and Onsoy (2004) have argued that, now a day, computer technology has started to take their places in education. Lam(2000) argues that lack of understanding of the effectiveness of integrative technology leads teachers to have negative attitudes towards the use of technology for teaching. Lam and Lawrence (2002) state that there are teachers who are afraid of losing theirauthorityin the classrooms and so have ambivalent feelings about using technology in their lessons. At the same time newer teachers are more confident in using technology because they might have experiences in utilizing computer technology when they were students (Onsoy, 2004; Ghulam, 2013).
Many researchers are interested in using computers as a medium for teaching/learning. Therefore, many studies were conducted on using CALL for teaching English. Computer technology made the rapid development after the 1980s and it made beneficial component for the secondary language acquisition. Learners and teachers recognized that using computer technology for second language learning is convenient for individuals and also for collaborative learning and it also provide language experiences as they move through the various stages of language acquisition (Kung, 2002). Linguistic thinks that explaining the advantages and disadvantages of CALL are beneficial for the learners because they motivate the users and provide the right direction to move. Current computer technology has many advantages for second language acquisition (Rost, 2002; Salaberry 1999; Johnassen, 1996). Computer assisted language learning provides the chances to students to work independently without the presence of teacher and leaving the space for the teachers to work on those parts of second language which cannot be done on the computers such as dialogue practice and presentation (Roger, 1996).
LEE (2000) further said that computer technology usage for second language can provide learning motivation, student achievement can be enhanced, provides authentic material for the students can enhance the interaction between the teachers and student, independent learning and understanding of the world. Computer technology can provide fun games and can create chances for communication and reduce the stress and anxiety. Now with the help of computer students can get immediate feedback and can assess their learning.
In conclusion, having reviewed the above studies, we find that many researchers assert the importance of computer assisted language learning. It is clear from studies that using CALL is more beneficial and helpful than using the traditional methods.
MethodologyThe methodology will be applied by the study that has been chosen in order to acquire information and deduce conclusion about the development and the role of CALL in the area of the education.
Research designThe present research will be descriptive in nature. The design of exploratory research will be adopted because in this project we will explore the problem. the method of this research is survey method and data will be collected through questionnaire. the nature of our questionnaire will be close ended questions.
There are many kinds of questionnaire that can be employed to collect data. We will use rating scale in the study. Rating scale is a type of questionnaire and it is also known as Likert scale.
Population and sampling
The teachers of government schools from district Vehari will be the population of current research. All English language teachers, male and female, considered for the study.
Population will not be measured and counted we will take suitable representative as a sample.
Data collection procedureFor this research, and to achieve the objective the required data will be collected. The data will be collected with the questionnaire from the teachers of English language of secondary schools of District Vehari. Close ended questions will be used to collect data.
The research tools will be adapted from Rafiee and Purfallah (2014). Close ended questions will be included in this method.
How collected data will be analyzedThe collected data will be analyzed through the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science). After collection and analysis of data, study will be concluded.
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Mohammadi, F.A .; Samadi, F. (2014) The impact of CALL technology on improving Iranian students’ accent
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