Recently, more generalized and object-oriented system dynamics simulation models have been developed. As one of the earliest applications, Palmer et al. (1993) tailored a dynamic simulation software application to represent the Portland water supply system. Other applications include river basin planning (Palmer et al. 2000), long-term water resource planning and policy analysis (Simonovic et al. 1997; Simonovic and Fahmy 1999), reservoir operation (Ahmad and Simonovic 2000), sustainability of a water resource system, and water supply planning and management (Nandalal and Simonovic 2003). System dynamics modeling was also used to model sea level rise in a coastal area by Ruth and Pieper (1994).
Simonovic and Bender (1996) applied a dynamic simulation approach to a collaborative planning-support system by adding environmental issues, e.g. fish habitat, to hydroelectric power generation. Passell et al. (2002) presented a computerized dynamic model to simulate the hydrology, ecology, demography and economy in the Middle Rio Grande Basin using the commercially-available application, Powersim Studio. Water sustainability and groundwater storage in San Pedro River Basin, AZ was evaluated by Sumer et al. (2004).
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