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PREVENTION OF PRESSURE ULCERS IN BEDRIDDEN PATIENTS IN HOSPITAL INTRODUCTION This literature review is based on risk for Pressure Ulcers

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PREVENTION OF PRESSURE ULCERS IN BEDRIDDEN PATIENTS IN HOSPITAL
INTRODUCTION
This literature review is based on risk for Pressure Ulcers (bedsores) in old aged bed ridden patients, highlighting the importance of nurses role in bedsore prevention. “Evading a disease and taking the right precautions is put forward over curing it” is a universally accepted thought which comes into practice when it comes to topics such as this.. Hence the importance of taking precautions to prevent pressure ulcers is immense.
DECREASE THE RISK FOR PRESSURE ULCER IN BEDRIDDEN PATIENTS IN HOSPITAL
ABSTRACT
Background
Pressure ulcers (bedsores) are injuries such as rashes which show up on the body of immobile patients which may turn threatening if not treated with right precautions. Hence pressure ulcers have become a common issue amongst old aged immobile patients in hospital.
Aim
The aim of this review is to identify and acknowledge the risks associated with pressure ulcers and to take into consideration the correct precautions and methods which can be used to prevent such ulcers which later acts as the laid foundation for life threatening diseases and conditions.
Search strategy
Information was taken from literature articles on ‘hinari login.research4life.org’ using ‘Pressure Ulcers’, ‘Risks associated with pressure ulcers’ and ‘Prevention of pressure ulcers’ as key words.
Key findings
The keywords which were used to search required information were Pressure Ulcers, Risks for bedsores and Prevention of pressure ulcers.
Conclusion
There are several factors like poor practice and knowledge of nurses related to bedsore prevention of immobilized old aged patients in hospitals, which increases the risk for pressure ulcer development. Therefore, to overcome the problem, it needs to be improved the practice and knowledge of working nurses.
BACKGROUND
Even though pressure ulcer are avoidable, it is serious problem if left without proper nursing intervention. Due to pressure ulcer many impaired mobility patients burdens severe pain. The threats possessed by such a condition includes joint infections and cancer rates sometimes rising to a maximum of 10.5% as mentioned in the Indian Journal of Palliative Care. Therefore, it is believed that such threatening conditions should be handled at any cost and in a professional and an effective way.
SEARCH STRATEGY
Information was taken by accessing from ‘hinari login.research4life.org’, on 10th October 2018. ‘Pressure Ulcers’, ‘Risks of pressure ulcer s’ and ‘Prevention of pressure ulcers’ were also looked up as keyword during the search. All the sets of research data provided in the selected articles were thoroughly studied to come up with a conclusion and proper prevention methods. For the review six articles are been red and among all, most quantitative three articles has been selected for the review.
MAIN BODY
PRESSURE ULCER
Pressure ulcers are localize skin damage or injuries to particularly noticeable areas where bones are close to the surface. As a result of small skin breaks on pressured area may developed into chronic sores with slow healing. And development of ulcers may increase the hospitalization days. Due to extended stay time of patient in hospital may cause hospital acquired infection to the patient. So all the bed ridden patient are required to extra care to prevent ulcer development.
RISK ASSOCIATED WITH PRESSURE ULCERS
The most frequent risk factor for development of pressure ulcer has been recognized as patients’ degree of motion, activities and skin status. Moreover, pressure ulcer risk can be developed due to factors such as hematological, nutritional and general health status. Like that it is noticeable that diabetic patients who are bedridden are at higher risk for bed sore. In hospital setting critically ill patients who are weak and lack of strength under usage of supportive medical devices like nasal cannulas, face mask for non-invasive positive pressure ventilation are also at highly risked for pressure ulcers formation. According to survey conducted for 83 admitted patient who have total 113 bed sores , 39 out of 113 are associated with medical device. (International wound journal, volume 7, october2010, page 358-365). However, no single risk factor, at either the patient or ward level, is sufficient to explain the presence of pressure ulcers.
NURSES ROLE IN PREVENTING OF PRESSURE ULCERS
The role of nurses in patient care is huge responsibility. And identification of patients at risk should be taken seriously. Risk assessments are kept up-to-date for patients who are at risk of pressure ulcers and continue regular skin assessments for frail older patients, inspecting their skin for signs of pressure damage. To minimize risk of bed sore formation precaution can take by providing comfortable devices over pressure point and also by frequent position changing. Pressure ulceration causes pain and discomfort to patients, which affects their quality of life. And they often have difficulty coping with the pain they experience, and might become withdrawn and depressed. Therefore, it is important for nurses to understand their patients with provide effective care and support for these patients. Patients should have a care plan in place that includes an individual repositioning plan, daily skin inspection and nutritional assessment, and which takes the patient’s mobility into consideration. Therefore, adequate nursing cares are vital in pressure ulcer prevention.
CONCLUSION
The aim of the literature review is to identify how pressure ulcers developed, risk for pressure ulcer and nurses role in preventing bedsore formation. It is essential to prevent the patient getting into life threatening disease which is associated with bed sores. Hence, nurses need to pay extra attention and be well aware of preventing pressure ulcer development. In-service training and upgrading courses are some of the important steps to improve nurses’ knowledge and practice on prevention of ulcer pressure.
REFERENCE

Guide to medical researches http://hinarilogin.research4life.org/ accessed on 10th August 2018.
J,F,Lavallee. T,A,Gray. J,Dumville. ; n,Cullum. (2018). International Journal of Nursing Studies.( issued82. , pages79-89) .
N, Nuru. F,Zewdu, S,Amsalu, ; Y,Mehrtie. (2015). BMC Nursing. Retrieved from http://login.research4life.org/tacsgr1bmcnurs_biomedcentral_com/articles/10.1186/s12912-015-0076-8
M,Zdzioch. (2017, January 18). Pressure ulcer prevention: Nursing Standard. (Volume31,.issue21). Retrieved from http://login.research4life.org/tacsgr0journals_rcni_com/nursing-standard/pressure-ulcer-prevention-ns.31.21.64.
C,Dealey C. T, Brindle. J, Black. P,Alves. N,Santamaria. E,Call. ; M.Clark. (2015,June). Challenge In Pressure Ulcer Prevention: International Wound Journal. (309-312). Retrieved from http://login.research4life.org/tacsgr1onlinelibrary_wiley_com/doi/full/10.1111/iwj.12107

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