Q1 Can we obtain light amplification in the absence of stimulated emission?
Ans No, it is impossible to obtain light amplification of laser in the absence of stimulated emission. But there is one example for light amplification in non-laser materials which is optical parametric emission.
It is non-linear optical process where we send optical signal and a pump beam into a nonlinear medium and the propagation of light through the medium occurs, photons from the pump beam are converted into lower energy signal photon, amplifying your signal, and photons which are usually ignored.
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