Organisation of the body
In this assignment we will be looking at cells tissues and organs in the human body.
Nucleus – The nucleus is in the centre of the cell it controls all the activities and movement in the cell.
What is the function off a nucleus – The nucleus hold all the DNA and genetic materials inside of it, it controls the activities off it.
Cell membrane – Cell membrane is a substance that is surrounding cytoplasm off the cells.
What is the function off a cell membrane – The function of a cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings, the cell membrane controls what comes in and out off the cell.
Organelles – Do different jobs
What is the function off an organelle – The function of a organelle is too help the cell work you would find this inside the cells, it helps with the functions and activities.
Mitochondria – These are little structures that are used to provide energy for the cells and body. It is also where chemical reactions occur in the cell.
What is the function off mitochondria – Mitochondria is where chemical reactions occur, it takes in nutrients from the cell and it breaks it down turning it into energy.
Cytoplasm – This is a jelly like substance that surrounds the cell and fills it in.
What is the function off the cytoplasm – Most off the chemical reactions take place here, which also helps the cell to work. It hold everything needed within the cell.
Lysosome – This gets rid of and deals with all of the waste products within the cell.
What is the function of the lysosome – Lysosomes are organelles that contain digestive enzymes they take in any bacteria or viruses and they digest excess organelles and food particles the job of the lysosome is to remove any extra or waste chemicals or products.
Endoplasmic reticulum – Helps the cell to use it fats and proteins.
What is the function off the endoplasmic reticulum – This has many jobs it works like a manufacturing and packaging system, forms sacs within the cytoplasm it folds and modifies proteins.
Golgi Apparatus – A complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm, helps with transport.
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus – This produces bundles proteins and lipids,
Epithelial – This is a tissue that lines the out off the organs for example the lining of the mouth, stomach, lungs etc.
Cuboidal – Cuboidal epithelial are cube like cells that consist of a single layer. These cuboidal cells have large, spherical and central nuclei. These cells perform absorption and secretion.
Ciliated – Ciliated epithelial has a thin tissue that has hair like structures on it, ciliated epithelial has the function of moving particles or fluids over the epithelial surface. The hairs do this by moving back and forth.
Simple epithelium – This consists of only one layer of flattened cells resting on connective tissues. Simple epithelium is where nutrients, wastes or respiratory gases exchange.
Columnar – Columnar epithelial consists of one or more layer of cells. This has the function of secretion and absorption.
Squamous – Squamous epithelial are flat tissues. Wherever rapid diffusion is required this is where squamous epithelial tissues are found, for example the capillaries and the outer layer of skin. Small molecules are able to pass quickly.
Compound keratinised – Compound keratinised epithelial tissues are very flat. They are not alive, they do not contain any organelles or a nucleus. They are filled with a protein called keratin which allows our skin to become waterproof.
Connective tissue – This attaches things together (joins).
Cartilage tissue provides support it is hard but not as hard.
The adipose is fat tissue that is located underneath the skin and around the organs.
The areola is also a connective tissue which is found around the blood vessels.
Adipose is another term for lose connective tissue, its main role is to store energy in the form of fat it cushions and insulates the body.
Blood connective tissue forms red and white blood cells, it transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and carries away carbon dioxide and other waste products.
Muscles contract and loosen. Very strong and important for sending messages. These can be found in the heart striated, non-striated and cardiac.
Nervous tissues are found in the spinal cord and in the brain. Neurons are send from the spinal cord and the brain sending messages this is helped through the neoroglia.
Heart- The heart has 4 chambers and values which connect them. It is a muscular organ that pumps the blood through the circulatory system. It is constantly pumping.
Brain- The brain is an organ off soft nervous tissue in the skull. Functioning the coordination, intellectual and nervous activity. It has four sections that all play different parts to controlling the body. It receives information through our 5 senses which are touch, sight, taste, smell and hearing. It controls our memories what we store and our thoughts. Our body runs on our brain and the functions.
Lungs- The lungs allows us to breath it takes in oxygen which is important and takes out the waste product which is carbon dioxide (CO2). It is located underneath our ribcage.
Liver- The liver is a glandular organ which filters the blood in our body.
Stomach- The stomach is a muscular organ which is located on the left side off the upper abdomen. The stomach receives food. The stomach muscles contracts and breaks down the food resulting in making allowing it too digest
Pancreas- The pancreas is located in the abdomen underneath the stomach. It has a very important role off converting the food we eat into fuel for the body. The pancreas has two main functions which is the exocrine function that helps with the digestion and the endocrine function that regulates blood sugar.
Kidneys- The kidneys play an essential part in the body, it filters our blood to keep it clean. It filters the waste material and passes them out off the body as urine. It regulates blood pressure and the levels of salt, water and minerals in the body. It also produces hormones that controls other body functions.
Duodenum- This is the first and the shortest segment of the small intestine. It is connected to the stomach and plays a vital role of digesting.
Endocrine- Glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development.
Bladder- The bladder is a muscular sac in the pelvis. When empty the bladder is about the size of a pear, Urine is made in the kidneys which then travels down tubes called the ureters into the bladder. The bladder stores the urine which then allows you to urinate.
Colon- The colon is part of the large intestine, it is the final part off the digestion system. It allows the waste products to be passed through and out of the body.
Ileum- The final and longest segment of the small intestine. It absorbs vitamins and nutrients.
Ovaries/testes- The ovaries are reproductive glands found in women which reproduce sex hormones. The testes are found in the male they produce male reproductive sperm.
Uterus- The uterus is also known as the womb. Found in a women’s body. Is an organ in the reproductive system and has an important job of holding the foetus during pregnancy.
Cardiovascular – This consists of the heart, blood vessels and the blood. This system has three main functions which are to transport nutrients, oxygen and hormones to cells throughout the body and removal off wastes for example carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes.
Digestive- Breaks down food into small molecules which is called digestion. Which are then absorbed into the body and then passes on and gets rid off the waste products.
Respiratory- Transports air into the lungs and allows the oxygen into the blood stream. It also receives the waste product carbon dioxide from the blood and exhales it.
Nervous- Controls all activities of the human body. Consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
Endocrine- Made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones.
Reproductive- The production off female and male sex organs within a women and a male.
Lymphatic- Helps protect us. Responsible for removal of fluid from tissues. It absorbs and transports fatty acids. It also transports white blood cells.
Musculo-skeletal- Made up of hard tissues which are the bones and soft tissues which are made of tissues and muscles.
Immune- The immune system helps protect us.
The overall main functions of the body is the cells, tissues and organs. The body is all connected in some ways. All functions play an essential role and without these the human body would not function properly in result of it shutting down. Each system has a different structure and different ways in how it works they all are very important the mail organs of a human body that control everything is the heart, lungs and our brain. Without a properly functioning heart a human cannot live. Without a good pair of lungs you cannot breath also a result of not living and the brain if it is not functioning properly this can result into many illness and disabilities even death.
The body has a way of working. We are able to breathe though our lungs and get rid of waste products (carbon dioxide) this is the cardiovascular system.
Our body works in many different ways. It is one big structure however within it there are millions of other structures and function’s.