Nutrition Case Fact Sheet
average daily carbohydrate and protein requirements
The recommend daily intake of protein intake for john would be between 50 grams of proteins and 175 grams. (Anne. M, 2018)
John would be looking between 150 grams of proteins and 175 protein intake to ensure that he is getting maximum protein in order to get full effect of muscle mass gain.
The recommend daily intake of carbohydrates are between 225 grams and 325 grams. (Anne. M, 2018)
John would be looking between 225 grams and 325 grams so overall this is important for john’s intake of energy especially for what he can use when working out.
B .John’s current intake of carbohydrates are 232 and protein is 177, When calculating John’s daily intake of protein this includes the formula taking in account John’s current weight of 75 Kgs and times it by 1.5 making it 112.5 grams. So overall John’s current intake is of 112.5 grams of protein daily when what he needs is about nearly 62.5 grams short aswell 37.5 grams.
In terms of John’s Carbohydrates intake requirements times it by 1.5 in which calculates 348 grams in john’s daily intake of his current diet. So overall John’s current intake is of 384 he is actually getting past what he needs in his diet for carbohydrate intake daily.
C. deficiencies in John’s current diet
One deficiency is that john’s eating times are not with his diet like for example he eats his dinner after 9pm or during that timeline. The recommend time for heavy meal such as dinner would be 6pm so four hours earlier then john’s 9pm slot, reason for this is because john is more like to put on fat despite having a training programme that would shed that fat off of him, due to this his gain for muscle would slowed down and lack progress. (Allan.S, 2018)
D. the glycaemic index
The glycaemic index is rating system of a variety of foods in which can contain carbohydrates aswell as the glucose levels in different foods. (nhs, 2018)
Some examples of the foods high in the glycaemic index may include white bread or a bagel, puffed rice, cornflakes, pretzels, rice cakes, melons and pineapples, rice pasta and short grain white rice as all of these examples have a GI of 70 and more which Is not beneficial to our health. (American Diabetes Association, 2014)
Some examples of foods medium of the glycaemic index may include whole wheat, rye and pita bread aswell as brown, wild basmati rice, couscous. All these foods are relatively not beneficial for us however do have a lower glycaemic index of 56-59 which indicates too us that it’s still high however is more acceptable to have in our diets especially if we exercise enough. (American Diabetes Association, 2014)
Some examples of foods that are lower in the glycaemic index may include oatmeal, sweet potato, corn, most fruits, barley, butter beans, peas, carrots, vegetables and lentils. All these foods are the lowest on the glycaemic index and have a GI of 55 or less and this beneficial to our body’s as this is less sugar in our systems and allow us to gain less calories as well as less body fat if it’s not burnt away. (American Diabetes Association, 2014)
E. type of foods and when they should be eaten
Depending on the types of foods high, medium, low on glycaemic index shows us the different levels of sugar within them and considering john’s a bodybuilder we want avoid these high sugar foods. Minerals and vitamins can often be found in most foods however some examples may include. For Minerals can include dairy products for calcium like milk, cheese, tofu, with another example being copper being nuts and wholegrains (Healthy Children Association, 2018)
Some Vitamins to include would be nuts and seeds aswell as mushrooms and green vegetables. (Healthy Children Association, 2018)
However, for John depending on when he is getting his fat, proteins and carbohydrates however minerals and vitamins while still important do matter slightly less as it’s possible for him to still get these from normal foods. Like for example if John was to drink milk to get more calcium it would be more likely for him to gain this from drinking it as a snack rather than dinner.
F. how fluid is lost during exercise
During John’s programme he is doing weight training in order to gain extra muscles this is putting extra pressure on the muscles thus greater force making John lose more fluid due the hard work the muscles are putting in order to work against this force. Due too John’s bodybuilding and his physic being bigger one factor for fluid lose could be that he has a larger surface area in which means he could have an enhanced sweat production due to his surface area. (Human Kinetics, 2018)
Another factor for John’s fluid lost during exercise is also how well conditioned his as this will depend on how much production of fluid he makes, while the environment also being another factor due to if the environment is hot then john is more likely to lose more fluid by sweating so much during his work out while the heat causes radiation making fluid lost greater (Human kinetics, 2018)
G. type of fluids that he could take immediately before, during and after training
There are a variety of fluids John could take before, during and after training. It would be recommended that before doing his workouts he gets about 400ml – 600ml of water to have a fully hydrated body for the exercise aswell (Manning. S, 2010)
John may also want too have an energy drink is this can allow the body to possibly delay fatigue and prevent dehydration (Manning. S, 2010)
During Training John may might want to consume cold water as it leaves the stomach faster and is absorbed by the body far quicker. (Manning. S, 2010)
After training it is recommended that John includes sodium and water drinks as this seemingly drives the body on to want to rehydrate the body (Manning. S, 2010)
H. food ‘swaps’
Some foods that might give john that extra natural protein within system due to him trying to bulk up these can include. Rice, pasta for carbohydrate in take as well as protein intake, oats, peas, cashew nuts, lentils, sunflower seeds and another example could be tofu. (Waehner.P, 2018)
John could replace all these foods that are high in protein in which would help him make that requirement of the extra protein needed before hand, as well as meeting his carbohydrate needs as he falls slightly short of that target energy as well. If John was to replace his tuna sandwich with rice and pasta this helps him balance his carbohydrates and gain extra protein before training this will allowing him to be fully ready to burn the energy needed for his workouts. Another example of his lunch instead of a baguette he could eat lentils, tofu again allowing him energy and not putting on extra calories not needed in which he wouldn’t be able to burn it off, thus putting on weight.
I. Protein shakes
John’s current routine of protein shakes do benefit him as he is adding extra protein within his system as well as the calories to add to bulk him up, however since it’s recommended to gain an extra 200 calories when trying to gain muscle mass john might needed to add an extra protein shake before his works arguably during his lunch so the body might have time to digest this. (Coleman. E 2018)
Nutrition Case Study Two
The recommended daily intake of carbohydrates includes being from 130 grams and 170 grams. (Coleman.E, 2018) Due to Sarah being a runner she will run heavily on carbohydrates rather than protein it’s important she is within this recommended gram range.
The recommended daily intake of proteins includes being from 50 grams to 175 grams of proteins. (Coleman. E, 2018) Overall this means that Sarah needs more protein in her diet since she is also suffering from IDA so having more protein in this range would prove extremely beneficial for her.
Sarah’s current intake of proteins and carbohydrates being 107 grams and 30 grams of proteins. So overall looks like Sarah is falling short of her needed intake of carbohydrates and protein intake needed.
C. Some symptoms of the iron deficiency for Sarah include tiredness, shortness of breath, pale skin and noticeable heartbeats. (Nhs, 2018) Some factors that might be affecting Sarah can include stomach ulcers, swelling of the large intestines or the oesophagus. Another factor is pregnancy but this is less likely to be the main factor. (nhs, 2018)
D. One thing Sarah could do to treat her IDA is by eating high rich iron foods. Some other examples of what Sarah could do to help treat her IDA is by taking iron supplements in which would depend on how serious her case of IDA is, so she could be recommend the correct amount. (Nutritionist Resource, 2018)
She could also add high rich iron foods to her diets to gain the iron she needs as well as protein she needs in her training diets. Examples of these are tofu, brown rice, fish, eggs, beans and nuts. (Nutritionist Resource, 2018)
E One deficiency in Sarah diet in which is obvious is that she is lacking protein in her diet and has very little foods in which give her iron and protein therefore this can cause an effect on her performance due to the fact if she has a lack of protein and iron in her diet could cause extreme fatigue and frequent exhaustion meaning an impact on results. (Welch. A, 2018)
F Due to Sarah being an runner this means she cannot be overloaded with protein and must balance between using carbohydrates and having iron with protein in our system. Some changes to her diet is from examples like for example oatmeal, sweet potatoes, bananas, healthy soups and salads aswell as for boost in protein and iron hard boiled eggs (Berkeley.B, 2018)
So an example is for breakfast instead of having a 2 slices of wholemeal bread with honey and a cup of coffee to have instead a small banana, oatmeal and some slim milk as allows for Sarah to get a boost in iron and protein aswell carbohydrates.
G Keeping well hydrated is extremely important at any point even if it’s, pre, during or even after exercise especially since Sarah has IDA this may prove beneficial in her general health. Advice on how to keep hydrated would be starting a workout would be very ineffective and would hinder Sarah performance during the workout itself, water should normally be consumed 2-3 hours before any workout or intense exercise. (Ashtekar.A, 2018)
During exercise hydration is important to rehydrate the body as the body is sweating and losing energy while burning fat cell, while also the body is trying to keep up with intensity. A cold glass of water between 180ml – 200ml should be consumed however depending on the length of duration like for example if the intense exercise is longer then it’s recommend for an athlete to rehydrate even more as the risk of a decrease in drop in performance due to dehydration increases. (Ashtekar.A, 2018)
During post exercise it’s important we rehydrate our body system as the body has been pushed to work extremely hard and has become very dehydrated after a period and rehydrating after exercise is important not only for our general health but to allow our body system to reconnect properly and allow it to reheal. The recommendation for post exercise rehydration is 400-500ml of water for every pound lost during workouts. (Ashtekar.A, 2018)
Allard. S (2018) The best time to eat breakfast , lunch and dinner if you want too lose weight Available at: http://www.goodtoknow.co.uk/wellbeing/so-when-is-the-best-time-to-eat-breakfast-lunch-and-dinner-115224 (Accessed: 28th April, 2018)
Anne, M (2018) Recommend fats, carbohydrates, Proteins and Sodium http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/recommended-fats-carbohydrates-proteins-sodium-4478.html (18th May 2018)
Ashtekar.A, (2018) Water intake pre, during, and post workout Available at: https://goqii.com/blog/water-intake-pre-during-and-post-workout/ (Accessed: 4th May 2018)
American Diabetes Association, (2018) Glycaemic index and diabetes Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/understanding-carbohydrates/glycemic-index-and-diabetes.html (Accessed date: 7th May 2018)
Health Kids Association, (2007) Vitamins and Minerals https://healthy-kids.com.au/food-nutrition/nutrients-in-food/vitamins-minerals/ (Accessed: 15th May 2018)
Benardot.D, (2018) Learn the factors affecting fluid loss Available at: http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/learn-the-factors-affecting-fluid-loss (Accessed: 1st May 2018)
Berkeley.B, (2018) 7 Deal Meal Plan: A healthy diet for runners Available at: https://www.womenshealth.com.au/a-healthy-diet-for-runners-meal-plan-week (Accessed 11th May 2018)
Coleman. E (2018) Available at: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/bulk-up-protein-shakes-7475.html (Accessed 9th May 2018)
Coleman. E, (2018) what are the carb and protein food allowance for women? http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/carbs-protein-food-allowance-women-2042.html (Accessed 19th May 2018)
Manning.S , (2010) Fluid Intake guidelines before during and after exercise http://impowerage.com/fitness/personal-trainer/fluid-intake-guidelines-before-during-and-after-exercise (Accessed 13th May 2018)
Nhs, (2018) What is the glycaemic index? Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/1862.aspx?categoryid=51 (Accessed: 29th April 2018)
Nhs,(2018) Iron deficiency Anaemia available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/iron-deficiency-anaemia/(Accessed: 30th April 2018)
Nutritionist Resource, (2018) Iron Deficiency Anaemia Available at: https://www.nutritionist-resource.org.uk/articles/iron-deficiency-anaemia.html (Accessed: 3rd May 2018)
Waehner. P, (2018) The best of kinds of protein for building muscle Available at: https://www.verywellfit.com/protein-recommendations-for-exercise-1229792 (Accessed 6th May 2018)
Welch. A, (2018) Hair loss, fatigue and a swollen tongue can all symptoms of low iron levels Available at: https://www.everydayhealth.com/news/unusual-signs-iron-deficiency/ (Accessed 10th May 2018)