Natural Pollution prevention is a continuous implementation of elimination, reduction and prevention of pollution in its starting stages. Additionally, this practice of preventing pollution implies that efforts should be made to reduce the control, treatment, and disposal of pollutants that are harmful for the environment. However, the advent of industrial revolution has caused a sharp incremental increase in the ratio of man-made pollutants in the natural environment with the efforts made to control and disassociate them from the natural environments. In addition to this, global population rate has caused a further aggravation in this situation. An article of river habitats in a wider landscape context states that both terrestrial and aquatic habitats have witnessed major biological imbalances. Books “Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environments” by Ulrich Forester and Dr. Gottfried Wittmann has described this in vivid detail. Natural pollution prevention is an important approach to preserving aquatic lives and the terrestrial environment.
Environmental preservation is attained through natural and artificial processes. Natural processes are self-restoration activities of the environment. However, additional artificial methods may be employed to speed up the preservation process. In his article “A Success Story: Water Primroses, Aquatic Plant Pests”, Dr. Thouvenot mentions that humans are currently employing man-made commercial applications in order to control pests that habitat the aquatic life (LISE THOUVENOT). Such aquatic plants are a natural feature of the aquatic ecosystem. They are utilized as either food or hiding places by aquatic animals. Initial step in the management of aquatic weed is weed identification. Aquatic weeds may lead to pollution of the waters which becomes a major issue for the aquatic life. Main challenge faced by humans to control these pests includes the prediction of the spread by such species (LISE THOUVENOT). An ecologist in his book “Biological Indicators of Freshwater Pollution and Environmental Management” mentions that man-made activities, besides the economic status, have caused devastating effect in the natural habitat and the ecosystem for several decades. Natural deterioration is, directly and indirectly, caused by harmful human activities. Agriculture and mining are some of the few human practices that have caused such effects. A study on the restoration of the Central Valley of California showed how made manmade techno sphere can affect the environment (Wiley-Blackwell). Manmade techno sphere includes structures such as houses and buildings. Effects of such a sphere are clearly evident from the California case study. Central valley habitat exchange program has introduced a habitat recovery system in California. According to a famous ecologist, the California recovery will allow the landowners and growers to enrich in economic incentives which will maintain high-quality wildlife habitat on their lands along with diversifying their income (Wiley-Blackwell). California’s central valley project focuses on the economic requirements of the community as well as the environmental demands. More projects are underway which targets the community needs as well as the demands of the natural environment. Ecologists are working on promoting environmental friendly solutions to human activities which deter the natural environment. Implementation of these projects is necessary to ensure quality maintenance of our ecosystem.
Habitat restoration is termed as preventing and renewing the damaged or destroyed ecosystems in our environment. However, habitat restoration is more than planting tree or introduction of species, it is a complex mechanism that takes careful analysis of all the environmental factors into account (Dr. Adrian Christopher Brennan). Human intervention is an important step in the habitat restoration of different ecosystems. Due to the advent of universal advancement in technology, adaption of man-made environmental solutions for control of pollution and restoration of wasteland has slowly increased. Major practices for restoration include regeneration of ecosystem of nature by artificial and natural ways. Environmental recovery specifically riparian recovery employing hedgerows was also introduced in the central valley of California (L.Wilkerson). By definition, hedgerows are a group of trees or bushes planted in a line along the roadside or field areas. Hedgerows are extensively used in modern agriculture because of its ability to work as a windbreak. Such an employment of hedgerow is an application of natural restoration. It is therefore very essential to have natural habitat friendly programs for restoration of the environment to diminish the degradation taking place (Dr. Adrian Christopher Brennan). Moreover, initiation of such programs is mandatory to achieve balance in the down sliding life of our ecosystem. Moreover, man activities has caused an increase in the rate of pollutants produced in the environment. Natural preservation and artificial recreation programs are implemented to ensure proper restoration. This implies that man has the ability to play a very important role in the process of pollution prevention (L.Wilkerson). Mankind plays an important role in the process of both destruction and restoration of the environment. Human activities are involved in the destruction and degradation of the ecosystem. It is necessary to control human activities and implement environmental solutions to maintain balance in the economy as well as the natural environment.
Background of the California Central Valley
Background of California Central Valley provides basic analysis data for the implementation of habitat restoration programs. California central valley, originally a river plain, was turned into a floodplain which was seasonally served by the watershed of two rivers of Sacramento and San Juan River (Earnshaw). In addition to that, the delta proved to be the habitat for most of the water and terrestrial wildlife that were native residents of the area. Some of the native wildlife include the fauna which included the monarch butterfly, Swainson’s hawk, Giant Garter snake, Riparian Land birds, chinook salmon, and the flora included the bee plant, Sage spp, twinberry, etc. California was a floodplain which was rich in water and nutrients that were washed every year from the ranges of Cascade, Sierra Nevada and Tehachapi located in the east and the California Coast Ranges in the west (Lora Morandin). California Central Valley was naturally gifted with numerous resources. It provided habitat for various aquatic and terrestrial animals. Valley was transformed into an agricultural zone. Subject of the legends behind the California central valley basin agriculture is a controversial one. However the dominating legends are farming and land grabbers (Lora Morandin). In this context, farming is run by machinery and a vision of near perfect agriculture that started in the 1860s. Moreover, the other legend states that the basin is occupied by land grabbers who not only occupy them till present but also continue to exploit the migrants and natural environment of the Golden State. Nonetheless, the basin has become a major zone of agriculture on the west coast of the United States. Degradation of environment in the Central Valley was a long-term process. Consequences of the development of agricultural zone in the basin cannot be shunned away so easily. Major degradation of the environment has been taking place as a result of the development of agricultural zone due to which the existence of some of the native flora and fauna has been threatened. Air and water pollution are the two major types of pollution which are at play in the area (Fitzgerald). Generally, pollution can be categorized in plain two forms that are more dangerous to humans and our environment. Moreover, the two forms are clearly defined by their names but hold immense-less categories. Both the types of pollution were found in California Central Valley. Intensity of air pollution has been dramatically influenced by the manmade activities (Fitzgerald). For example smog and the greenhouse gasses, CFCs, methane and the oxides of nitrogen, Sulphur, and carbonate are the major pollutants involved in air pollution in the area. Although most of the causatives of air pollution are man-made, the natural factor of the geographical location of the central valley has caused a profound acceleration to it. However, location of the valley between the two mountain ranges causes the valley to act like a pool of gases. Hot air gases rising from the valley itself trap such gases.
Water Pollution Analysis
In the aquatic ecosystems, isolated cases in the valley host water pollution. Aquatic contamination has been shown by Chinook salmon, which is a quantification tool. Completion of aquatic lifecycle has been majorly disturbed by man-made features like dams and floodplain levees (Kondolf). Aquatic lives are deeply affected by the ways of humans. A single human activity, though no matter how small can diversely affect the aquatic balance. Naturally, chinook salmon migrate to the Pacific Ocean and migrate back to reproduce in favorable habitats like the inundated floodplains (Bell). Some of the major tools involved in the aquatic disturbances include Eutrophication and manmade structures. Agriculturally active floodplains witness eutrophication as a major phenomenon. Nitrogenous nutrients, when used as supplements in farming, find their way into the river channels in order to flourish the plants in the ecosystem (Bell). An imbalance was caused by this between the flora and fauna. Flora species flourish relatively more as compared to the fauna species present in the ecosystem. In addition to this, another major factor involved in aquatic disturbances are manmade structure. Manmade structures are usually created to mitigate the flood waters or are created as systems for water storage (Kondolf). Important species such as the Chinook salmon are greatly disturbed by the blocking migratory corridors created by dams present along the side of the river. Floodplain levees create major hindrances to natural ecosystem as well. These are the most prominent features involved in aquatic disturbances. Moreover, these disturbances issue further disturbances creating a constant chain.
Habitat and Ecosystem Recovery
A goal of natural restoration is to promote natural recovery to the ecological systems of our environment. According to Winterhalter, chairperson of SER’s science and policy working group principal in his science journal “SER Primer on Ecological Restoration” defines ecosystem recovery as the process of assisting the recovery of a degraded, destroyed , or a damaged ecosystem (Science ; Policy Working Group). In a simple terminology, ecosystem recovery is saving the environment. Removal of environmental pollutants and promoting the growth of Earth’s natural capital are achieved through the process of natural restoration. Restoration program of California central valley focuses on engaging ranchers and farmers in accomplishing the goals of environmental mitigation and restoration of habitat (Jodi A. Hilty). Californian conservation goals are all set to eliminate pollutants from the environment. It is a necessary habit of humans to analyze the extent of dangers of such pollutants. This includes among others, the reintroduction of native and exotic species, boosting the native fauna for example hedgerows, butterflies and bees in ecosystem restoration. Along with other filter strips and windbreaks, hedgerows have emerged as an important plant species that can be utilized for pollution prevention in the modern agricultural systems (Jodi A. Hilty). Such activities were promoted in the area to restore the ecological balance of the valley. Complete restoration is estimated to be achieved by the initiation of the California Central Valley project. Rural farming setting have been utilizing hedgerows for thousands of years (Science & Policy Working Group). Hedgerows are employed as windbreaks, habitat for insects and other animals such as pollinators and act as a weed control. Hedgerows also provide multiple other benefits as such stabilizing waterways and pollution control. Advantages and benefits along with the application of hedgerows in the modern agricultural system are mentioned ahead.
Usage of Hedgerows
Hedgerows are utilized as field enclosures since the ancient periods of bronze age (3000 BC – 1000BC). Earnshaw, author of “Hedgerows for California Agriculture”, stated the other earliest reference being the use of hedgerows in the Britain as farm enclosures as far as 547 AD. Approximately 200,000 acreages of hedgerow were removed for expansiveness purposes during the second phase of the agrarian revolution that occurred in the Great Britain from 1947 till 1993 (Long). It was only given proper attention when its effectiveness was realized. Hedgerow is an effective tool as a windbreak and keeping pollution off an area. Research on hedgerows a=was conducted in the University of California David by Creps and Buggre. In addition to that, a list of insectary plants was also developed. Multi species hedgerows were introduced by Anderson at the hedgerow farms in California (Long). Extensive research was also conducted by the international tree crop institute (USA) in early 1970s and 1980 who formulated the development of multipurpose hedgerows. However, researchers are trying to find more benefits as well. Hedgerows are seen as an advantageous natural approach to prevent pollution. Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) and Resource Conservation District (RCDs) have also chipped in the programs affiliated with the reintroduction of hedgerows and riparian ecosystem rehabilitation (Hendrix). Hedgerows are researched to provide a number of beneficial advantages. Mainly, they act as a windbreak to keep pollution off an area. However, hedgerows also serve the purpose of providing habitat for various beneficial pollinators and insects. In a natural ecosystem, nesting habitats and floral resources are the two major components necessary for the pollinators to survive (Morandin). Nesting habitats include hedgerows, trees, and peaceful natural areas where they can lay their eggs and habitat accordingly. Floral resources include the presence of flowering plants that contain nectar. Pollinators utilize this nectar to produce food i.e. honey in the case of the honeybee. Pollinators such as bees and other animals play a very important role in the maintenance of the ecosystem and the yield of the global plants is increased by 75% (Fitzgerald). Pollinators are important working members of our ecosystem. They are responsible for the production of various plants, production of food and sustaining our ecosystem. Human food completely relies on animal pollination for the crop production. Global statistic report showed that 200$ billion was estimated as the crop yield produced by bee production (Fitzgerald). Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of Princeton University performed a research on the effect of wild bees on the increase in the production of field-grown tomatoes that are generally thought of being self-pollinating. Importance of wild bees is often completely underestimated. Wild bees play the role of vital pollinators in the ecological setup of our ecosystem. However, only a few amounts of wild bee’s colonies exist in the world. Maintenance of natural habitat is the major approach which should be taken to maintain the entire bee population from extinction (Greenleaf). Agriculture has devastating effect on pesticides, degradation of habitat, habitat loss and diseases. Such effects devastate the bee colony in many ways. Bee’s colonies, although important for our ecosystem, are clearly diminishing rapidly. As a result, the trend showing the decline in population attributed to the factors have been evident in wild non-Apes bees (Greenleaf). Concerns of the future of the national waters included erosion. Based on the increase on the pollution prevention, adequate protection can be ensured through the legislation and public awareness increments. Hedgerows have a lot of benefits of regarding improvement of soil quality and plant nutrients assimilation. Hedgerows also increases the surface to water infiltration. Hedgerows act as windbreaks that have been grown to different heights (Earnshaw). Windbreaks have a lot of importance to the natural ecosystems. They help in the protection of young seedlings from extreme weather, prevention of soil erosion, and shielding habitat from destruction. Providing habitat for rare birds such as Swainson’s hawk and riparian land birds is also another important factor in the use of hedgerows. Hedgerows are extremely important in the protection of crop fields and habitat of necessary pollinators.
Establishment of Hedgerows system
Hedgerows have become an important part of the modern agriculture system. Conservation and habitat restoration in the farm plans must be integrated by farmers interested by habitat restoration (Boutin). Typography, crop and non-crop production areas, hydrology, drainage and other available land masses within the area should be analyzed by the landowners according to Rachel Long who is a farm advisor at the California university cooperative farm extension. After the selection of the site, the next step is the assessment of the plants and the analysis of their suitability according to the respective area. Key consideration at this point is the constant check of species to habitat availability (Boutin). After the evaluation and analysis of the site, the design process for planting the hedgerows follows. Later, the plant is selection keeping in view the requirements of the given field. After the estimation of the budget and cost, hedgerows are planted according to the proposed design plan. Plants that have the ability to tolerate standing water are Sedges (Carexbarbarae, C. praegracilis), Elderberry (Sambucus Mexicana), Cottonwood (Populusfremontii), Willow Salix spp, rushes (Juncusspp.), etc. Moreover, perennial grasses that are tolerant to standing water are the Meadow barley (Hordeumbrachyantherum), creeping wildrye (Leymustriticoides), Deer grass (Muhlenbergiarigens), and Slender wheatgrass (Elymustrachycaulus). Shrubs that do not have the ability to be tolerant to standing water are the Coyote brush (Baccharispilularis), California lilac (Ceanothus spp.), Coffeeberry (Rhamnuscalifornica), and Buckwheat (Eriogonumfasciculatum) (Greenleaf). Although hedgerows grow fast and adapt to their suitable environment, maintenance must be accompanied. Different factors need to be analyzed regarding the matter. Grass should be mowed and regular weed checks should be ensured (Schoeman). Excellent methods of prevention of pests include plucking the week out of the fields and analyzing the area. Proper removal ensures prevention of harmful pests and animals. An annual trim of hedgerows is necessary depending on the weed growth as it may attract rodents and pests that are harmful to other crops (Schoeman). Hedgerows invade the area replacing harmful weed or pests. However, such weed and pests do need to be taken care of annually. Hedgerows provide a number of beneficial advantages which includes pollution prevention, acting as a windbreak, weed replacement, erosion protection and pollinator habitat.
Pollinator plays a vital role in the ecological setup and food production in our ecosystem. Threats to ecosystem and food security needs to be kept under watch regarding the alarming rate of decrease in the pollinator population (Levy). Bee colonies are rapidly decreasing from our ecosystem. They are responsible for the reproduction of various plants and production of the crop. Agriculture is solely dependent on the process of animal pollination. Many populations of the native wild bees has been disappearing. Since 1993, the yellow-banded bumblebee witnessed a sharp decrease in its population by 99% (Levy). Yellow-banded bumble bee gives the extraordinary example of the effects of pollinators in the ecosystem. Xerces Society for invertebrate conservation exists to promote ways to save these species. According to the society, some of the ways that can be done to help the pollinators includes the creation of a diversity bloom and habitat restoration and protection of habitats and layer sites. Moreover, another excellent approach in regards to the subject is the reduction in agro-chemical usage (Lonsdorf). An artificial recreation is a creative approach towards the matter. Increase in the usage of agro-chemical products in agriculture has been an instant decrease in the colonies of pollinator’s, especially wild bees. Pollinator colonies need to be preserved to protect our ecosystem and ensure the potential growth of food. Conservation of pollinators along their potential growth and the prevention of the ecosystem can also be ensured by reduction of agro-chemical usage (Lonsdorf). However, mainly the main goal of the methods is to ensure the optimum maintenance of the ecosystem. Manmade activities are responsible for the endangerment of such vital species. Similarly, human activities can help to restore them.
Pollution rate is increased by human activities such the use of agro-chemicals. This implies that in order to reduce agro-chemical usage and effectively take advantage of the natural pollinator, it is necessary to ensure the prevention of such activities. In addition to that, the major role played by human being in controlling and preventing aquatic life pollutions is weed identification. Another form of preventing pollution from the environment is controlling environmental erosion. This indicates that human activities play a major role in development of pollution of the environment. Moreover, man can also influence the prevention of pollution from the natural environment.
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