Name: MUZI MA
The article elaborates the definition of intersectionality and unfolds this subject into “Intersectionality and Race”, “Theorizing Intersectionality”, “The Appeal of Intersectionality”, “Illustrating Intersectionality: Culture, Nation, Ethnicity, Sexuality, and Gender”, “The Problems and Dilemmas of Intersectionality”. In the end, the author draws a conclusion that intersectionality is worth considering and of vital significance on this turbulent world, and it still has lot of work to do. The other ideas made by the author are affected by intersectionality and affected it as well. To overview the whole article, I harbor the idea that this author is positive because he manifestly states the benefits of intersectionality toward the whole society.
The theory of intersectionality is a new academic trend. Ostensibly, this is a recent new Marxist theory, which argues that social oppression is not confined to a single category of intensity such as race, gender, sexual orientation but in all these categories in the interconnected hierarchy and power structure. It works as a “smelly so-called orthodoxy”, almost as a religion to me. It indicates a classic orthodoxy by which all human experience can be explained and all words must be screened and filtered. The version of “original sin” it provides is the power of certain identity groups over others. To overcome this original sin, you must first admit, for example, “to restrict your privilege,” and then live in a way sufficient to suppress it, to organize your thoughts. The original sin is deeply rooted in your mental structure, especially if you are white, male, or heterosexual, you need a significant change of mind. Like the Puritanism that was once the scene of the New England uproar, the theory of intersectionality dominates language and the terminology it talks about. It sets a code of conduct. It has an idea of virtue and it is enthusiastically embraced. The saints are the most oppressed but still revolt. Sinners are classified in new categories, which seem to resemble Dante’s elements. The only thing this religion lacks, of course, is redemption. Life is only a link composed of oppression, power, and resistance, and only ends in death. This is not the ultimate complete freedom of Marx.
Post-modern feminist theory suggests that women rights should be discussed in a framework that transcends women’s rights. It is manifested in the discussion of women’s rights to realize the “intersection” of social identity, that is, the superposition of gender (including the two major issues of women and sexual minorities), race, economy, title, and so on. In this simplified social model, considering the superposition of gender and race, we come to the conclusion that white men are at the highest levels of society and have the most resources overall, while black men and white women take second place. There is a certain chance of getting ahead, but there are relatively more obstacles; black women are more likely to be at the bottom of society. Of course, this model can’t be directly applied, but it can still give us a lot of inspiration. By analogy with the intersection of gender and race in the United States, gender and urban, rural, money are likely to be closer to each other in the country. For example, when we saw the news of city girls and Phoenix men returning to their hometown with hot eyes, or when we found that countless men, singles and ordinary girls were able to feed and clothe without worry on top of the list, do we realize how many layers of human power are superimposed, whether we can begin to analyze what is patriarchal oppression, what is the pressure of capital, what is personal choice, what is historical progress, and which are comrades in arms. Who are the vested interests?
Intersectionality helps us to reveal how the multiple social identity markers are solved. Cross-cutting recognition does not mean that not everyone in the same identity group has the same identity, and not everyone faces the same problem when their diverse group relationships are considered. Without representing the group identity, it will be ignored in the end. Intersectionality emphasizes not only the cross nature of individual identity classification, but also individual and group intersection. A cross-cutting perspective allows us to conceptualize the social structure, which is used as the basis for the multiple social classifications that form the unit of personal identity, which reveals the emerging structure of personal relationships. The relationship structure is caused by feeling, experience and negotiation relationship caused by multiple group members. Anyway, the Intersectionality School is formed by black women in the United States in response to the contradictions within the development of capitalism. It is a powerful weapon in dealing with capitalism and patriarchal bigotry.