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Kate Dougherty
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Chapter 3: The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000-500 BCE (pgs. 59-88)
Chapter 4: Greece and Iran, 1000-30 BCE (pgs. 92-122)

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ASSIGNMENT DIRECTIONS: Complete the assignment using the textbook The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History *Advanced Placement edition (3rd edition) available from the LAHS Media Center, or from your own copy (Some people consider buying a used textbook at Amazon.com or Barnesandnoble.com).
1) Answer the questions thoroughly and in your own words. Plagiarism will be monitored by Turn It In
2) Remember to always think about WHY something is important/significant and to explain that significance.
3) Don’t forget to save your own work before submitting! Do not submit a blank assignment.

THESIS STATEMENT
(Taken from content viewed in Chp. 1.)
The THESIS STATEMENT is a key concept in AP World History. Because HALF OF THE COURSE centers on essay writing, you MUST – absolutely MUST – become a masterful writer with clear purpose. In order to do this, we will work regularly on the conventions of writing proper, timed essays for AP World based on the curriculum dictated by The College Board. In this chart, you need to create your OWN thesis statement based on what you’ve read in this chapter.
MAIN ARGUMENT: This is at the beginning of every thesis statement. Thesis statements are typically ONE SENTENCE in length. The MAIN ARGUMENT outlines the central idea you will try to prove by the end of your essay.

WRITE A PHRASE THAT WILL SERVE AS YOUR MAIN ARGUMENT IN THE BOX TO THE RIGHT ?
From the time period 2000-500 B.C.E, Judaism drastically affected Israel’s culture through the Hebrew Bible.
TIME PERIOD: The College Board requires that every thesis statement refer to a specific time period or era. A time period can be numeric dates like “from 2000 – 1000 BCE,” or the reference of a time period in writing “in the second millennia BCE,” or even an era “in the Neolithic Era.”

All are correct, and all have focused the time period of your evidence for a potential essay. IDENTIFY A TIME PERIOD YOU WOULD FOCUS ON IN THE BOX TO THE RIGHT ?
2000-500 B.C.E
THREE (3) CONTROLLING IDEAS: Controlling ideas are HOW you propose to prove your MAIN ARGUMENT.

Controlling ideas are FOCUSED and not broad. For example, if you needed to prove a topic about how one empire conquered another, a controlling idea might be “the consistent use of military raids on important urban centers.” This shows you understand one way in which conquest occurred.

LIST YOUR THREE (3) INDIVIDUAL CONTROLLING IDEAS IN THE BOX TO THE RIGHT.
1. Mass deportation shaped the Jewish religion and forced the Jews to traverse into Europe in order to maintain their culture.

2. Pilgrimage allowed the Jews to stay immersed in their faith publicly while following the laws of the Hebrew Bible.

3. The Torah shaped Judaism with its myriad of laws and monotheistic view. These factors would later come to impact other religions.

DEFINITIONS: Using the textbook, define the following terms/words. Make sure to explain why the term/person/event is important to the development of history, the region it exists, or civilization as a whole. USE YOUR OWN THOUGHTS / ASSESSMENT / WORDS. These are NOT just bold-faced words. The space provided does NOT have to be completely filled.

Chp
#
TERM / WORD
CLEAR DEFINITION
EXPLAIN WHY IT IS SIGNIFICANT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CHAPTER / TIME PERIOD

INFORMATION TO HELP YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT IS EXPECTED IN THESE VOCABULARY CHARTS.
Here, you clearly explain WHAT the term is. Give clear, concrete facts that helps you understand WHAT is was.
Here, you explain – maybe in your own words – WHY IT WAS IMPORTANT. Examples of describing the SIGNIFICANCE can be, but are NOT limited to:

1) What was its legacy / what did it leave behind?; 2) Did it start something new?; 3) Was it the LAST TIME something happened?; 4) What major change occurred as a result?’ 5) What did it help to preserve or continue?
3
Hittites
The people who speak the Indo-European languages are known as Hittites.
The Hittites were famous for becoming the central power in Anatolia, Greece.
3
Hatshepsut
A female pharaoh ruling from 1478 B.C.E until her death in 1458 B.C.E.
Hatshepsut changed the norms of society by taking on role as pharaoh while a woman.
3
Minoan
An ancient civilization beginning in the city of Crete.
This civilization created the foundations for centralized government, buildings/architecture, and bronze tools.
3
Mycenae
A country in the southern region of ancient Greece.
Mycenae helped create the essential characteristics that would later make up Ancient Greece.
3
Linear B
A ancient Greek script discovered on clay tablets.
This script is the the foundation for Greek language.
3
Neo-Assyrian Empire
The Neo-Assyrian empire is an ancient civilization that was feared for their barbaric warfare tactics and fearless attitude.
This empire was the first to rule foreign lands due to its forceful army.
3
Mass deportation
The action of deporting a certain race, group, or religious people to a different area.
The Jewish people suffered mass deportations heavily in ancient times. This concept also led to the mix of culture and race despite its negative effect.
3
Israel (ancient)
Israel is the country that is famous for the creation of the Jewish religion and Hebrew Bible.
Israeli people helped lay the foundation for the immensely popular religion known as Christianity.
3
Hebrew Bible
This book contains the Old Testament from the Bible, and is used as a guide for Jews.
The Hebrew bible encompasses the Torah, or the Old Testament which is strictly followed by Jews, not Christians.
3
Diaspora
The word Diaspora is disperse in Greek.
Dispersion in the Middle East allowed the Jews to keep their culture/religion.
3
Phoenicians
The Phoenicians would later greatly influence Greece. These people were Syrian-Palestinian.
The Phoenicians created a separate civilization from the Jews so they could follow their own beliefs.
4
Cyrus
Cyrus was a Persian prince who achieved many victories on the battlefield.
Prince Cyrus united Persian tribes and overthrew Median monarchy.
4
Darius I
Darius I changed his social status to ruler by seizing control of the empire.
After becoming ruler, Darius I extended control far eastward to Europe and into the Indus Valley.
4
satrap
A Persian ruler known today as a governor.
A certain tier of hierarchy in Persian society that contributed to the government.
4
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism is a Persian, monotheistic religion.
This religion changed Persian traditions with its monotheistic outlook.
4
polis
Polis is a Greek word for the term City-State.
City-states provided more easily controlled areas which led to stronger empires.
4
Herodotus
Herodotus lived in southwest Anatolia as a historian. He later came to write a novel called Histories.
Herodotus recorded important parts of Greek history/lifestyle, that helps us know the norms of ancient Greece’s society.
4
Pericles
Pericles was a prominent statesmen in ancient Greece.
Pericles helped develop the Athenian democracy, changing future country’s governments.
4
Persian Wars
The Persian Wars consisted of two attacks on Greece led by the Persians.
This war altered the relationships between Persia and Greece, and determined the more “fit” country between them.
4
Socrates
Socrates was a philosopher. He was put on trial and scrutinized for his disbelief in polytheistic teaching and his outlandish research.
Socrates created a more philosophical outlook for young people and went on to teach Plato. Socrates was hesitant to believe that there were multiple gods.
4
Plato (not bold, but in the book)
Plato was a philosopher. He lived in Athens, Greece, where he was Socrates disciple.
Plato created an academy for young adults who had a similar thought process as him. Plato also was taught by the great Socrates.
4
Aristotle (not bold, but in the book)
Aristotle was a philosopher from the Thracian coast. Aristotle studied at Plato’s academy in Athens.
Aristotle lectured about multiple topics in many places. He is most well known for tutoring the son of King Philip II.
4
Peloponnesian Wars
The Peloponnesian Wars occurred due to conflict between former alliance, Athens and Sparta. This war lasted for three decades.
This war made Athens an imperial and naval power and broke the alliance between Athens and Sparta.

MAPPING: Please shade/color the following Mediterranean civilizations. Use the names to create a mapping legend. Click on map and select EDIT. Add labels in the map, and then select SAVE/CLOSE in upper right-hand corner.

Kingdom of Israel
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Minoan Crete
Persian homeland/growth of Persia

? ? CHAPTER 3 ? ?
THE COSMOPOLITAN MIDDLE EAST, 1700-1100 BCE

BABYLONIA vs. ASSYRIA: Identify key, independent/differing characteristics for each empire. Focus on SIGNIFICANT details that really define the empire(s).

BABYLONIA-only details
ASSYRIA-only details
Ex. Specific, clear political developments or tools
How the Assyrians organized their political structures.
Babylonia’s government was a monarchy. This empire created tools and warfare weapons out of bronze and traded their products.

The Assyrian empire was a monarchy. This empire utilized their abundance of textiles and tin in order to obtain wealth through trade.

THE HITTITES: Watch the following, short video, about the warrior-nature of their society and their strength as warfare-based society.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFyxR1tSeY0
YOUR VIDEO NOTES:

READING NOTES ON THE HITTITES:

EGYPTIAN NEW KINGDOM (pg. 63-66)
EXPLAIN: How did the Egyptians control Nubia at this time?

In order to gain control, the Egyptians forced Nubians to adopt their language and culture.

EXPLAIN: How were the Egyptians able to EXPAND across the Nile River Valley? Identify SPECIFIC TACTICS they used.

In order to expand across the Nile river, the Egyptians used newly created naval vessels and trading routes.

EXPLAIN: How did Ramesses II extend and maintain COMMERCE / TRADE in the region?

The use of Metal helped maintain commerce and trade in Ramses II’s reign through the newly developed ships, docks, and tools/weapons.

THE AEGEAN WORLD, 2000-1100 BCE
LIST/IDENTIFY: What KEY IMPORTANT contributions did the Mycenaean civilization make to the Greek culture?

The Mycenaean civilization contributed shaft graves and the foundations for the Greek writing system that we know today.
EXPLAIN: What is the significance of LINEAR B?

Linear B is a Mycenaean writing system that is an early form of the Greek language/script.

THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE, 911-612 BCE: Complete the following chart using your own words after reading the textbook.

POLITICAL: Methods of conquest and empire expansion
SOCIAL: Building and maintaining a diverse empire
The Assyrians utilized their weapons and war techniques in order to expand. They also used mass deportation as a method of expansion.
Agriculturists, artisans, slaves, and Kings helped build and maintain a diverse empire through the power of specialized jobs, and centralized government.

ISRAEL, 2000-500 BCE
EXPLAIN: What is the significance of the HEBREW BIBLE in two (2) different categories:

1)To the Israelite people / culture?
To the Israelite people the Hebrew Bible is a law code that, still to this day, guides their lifestyle through Old Testament rule.
2)To the development of monotheism?
In the Hebrew Bible, the Jewish faith focuses on the monotheistic teaching of creation, which affects many religions today.

ORDER OF EVENTS: Using your reading, organize the political development of the Kingdom of Israel on the chart below. You will need to add spaces beyond what is provided.

YEAR
You MUST have more than these 2 spaces/ events for full credit.
POLITICAL EVENT / DEVELOPMENT FOR ISRAEL
500 B.C.E
Where a previously polytheistic religion had once been followed, the Jews transformed the cult into the monotheistic religion we know today: Judaism.
10th century B.C.E

Previously orally shared stories are written down in a Phoenician script. This text would come to be known as the Hebrew Bible or Torah.
1020 B.C.E
The first king, Saul, was anointed in 1020 B.C.E due to the need for a strong centralized government/leader.
960-920 B.C.E
King David’s son, Solomon, brought forth a type of golden age in Israelite monarchy. Trade, alliances, and agriculture flourished.
920 B.C.E
After the tragic death of King Solomon, the monarchy split into two kingdoms: Israel, and Judah.

? ? CHAPTER 4 ? ?

CRASH COURSE #5: The Persians & The Greeks. Watch the following Crash Course video and take notes about the interactions between the Persians and the Greeks. Make sure you are specific and clear.

King Cyrus of Persia conquered Mesopotamian land and therefore ended the babylonian exile. Persia’s religion, Zoroastrianism is supposedly the first monotheistic religion and introduced the idea of a battle between good and bad figures. The Greek writer, Herodotus penned a biased account of the Persian war due to his race. During this time, all city states referred to themselves as Greek, rather than by their city state title.

ANCIENT IRAN, 1000-500 BCE
IDENTIFY ; EXPLAIN: List and explain the various resources and skills the Iranians used to move from the mountains to the desert plains.

SKILL OR TOOL:
EXPLANATION OF HOW IT HELPED THE IRANIANS SETTLE IN THE DESERTS:
Irrigation
Irrigation aided the Iranian’s settlement into the desert because of the natural dry climate in that particular region. Conserved water and other irrigation systems were utilized for the empire during droughts; this factor became very important to the Iranians as they had never been in such harsh heat and were not immune.
Trade
Trade and Royal roads were used in order to bring forth a steady flow of currency and supplies not native to the region. This technology also allowed messaging and animal domestication to thrive throughout the middle east, so that easy transitioning was a possibility.
Agriculture
Agriculture helped the Iranian’s settle as food sources became reliable despite a new region to adapt to. Farming allowed specialization of labor, animal domestication, and trading networks with foreign kingdoms.

SATRAPS ; SIGNIFICANCE:
FACTUAL STATEMENT: Darius I used satraps effectively to politically control Persia.

EXPLAIN: Explain, in your own words, HOW Darius I was able to effectively control and administer Persia. THERE IS MORE THAN JUST ONE STATEMENT OR REASON!
Darius I was able to control and administer Persia using the following inventions/advancements: Darius created a network of maritime routes that aided the economic state of Persian society. Darius I also separated the kingdom into twenty provinces, each ruled by a satrap or governor. This system allowed the Persian empire to have utter control as the monarch to citizen ratio was less daunting and ensured the rarity of uprising. Royal roads connected city states to the center of the kingdom, allowing travel and messaging easily delivered/received.

PERSIAN KINGSHIP: Using the supplemental reading on pgs. 102-103, describe how the Persians viewed kings in their empire.

Persian kings were… (complete with various ideas) ?
Highly exalted due to the way they presented themselves with numerous titles. The rulers in Persia gave themselves such titles as “king of kings” and “king of countries.” The kings claimed to have been given leadership by the gods, cleverly making the citizens believe that their monarch was holy. As stated, due to the way leaders presented themselves, the citizens would faithfully follow the monarch with no exceptions.

THE RISE OF THE GREEKS, 1000-500 BCE

CATEGORY
MAJOR TOPICS
YOUR EXAMPLES / EVIDENCE
POLITICAL
– Use of the POLIS
– Use of HOPLITES
– Rise/Development of DEMOCRACY
Polis, or city states, were a major part of greek society as thousands were established under one rule; city states could also be found in almost every grecian city. Hoplites were used on the battlefield; they were armored infantrymen who battled in close quarters. This style of warfare was effective because the group of men could then break through the enemy’s line. Democracy was developed in order to give free males more power politically.
ECONOMIC
– Why was trade across the Mediterranean necessary?
– What did they produce themselves?
Trade was so necessary across the Mediterranean because all the civilizations were in need of currency, and they were in search of relationships with different cultures. If the civilizations had these contacts, then specialized jobs were in demand and materials from different regions were provided to those in need of that product. Traders across the Mediterranean produced
RELIGIOUS
– How/what did the Greeks worship?
The Greeks worshipped many gods and goddesses who they believe lived on mt. Olympus, where they governed with human qualities (faults). These deities were said to have created the heavens and earth, and to have intervened in daily life. Each god and goddess ruled over a portion of human life, object, or subject.
SOCIAL
– How were social classes organized? Was there inequality (pg. 114)
– How did Greek culture develop? What did it look like?
Grecian hierarchy was organized as follows:upper class, middle class, lower class, and slaves. There was inequality in Greek society because of their male dominated government/lifestyle. Slave, as mentioned above, were also permitted and were commonplace. Greek culture developed around their polytheistic beliefs and overall drive for knowledge and artistic creations.
INTELLECTUAL/ARTISTIC
– What major developments did the Greeks contribute to history?
– Who helped the Greeks to develop?
The Greeks helped develop architecture and pottery that inspires today’s designs and styles. Greece’s artwork was not only inspiring to modern day artists, but to other ancient civilizations. Today’s math has been also affected by Greece’s creativity. Geometry was invented by the Greeks, in order to advance in the field of mathematics. Although the Greeks were very intelligent they could not have accomplished their goals without the help of the Romans to aid them in creative matters.

ATHENS vs. SPARTA: If you’ve seen the movies 300 or 300: Rise of an Empire, you have some distinct ideas about Sparta and the Persians. But that’s Hollywood. This is history. Show with concrete details what you know.

ATHENS-only
This is SPARTA-only
Athens introduced the idea of a democracy. Slaves were a major part of Athenian society, and added to sales. Athens was a major center for learning, the arts, and philosophy.the parthenon temple was built their in 438 B.C.E.
Sparta was a warrior society that reached its height after defeating fellow city state, Athens. At age 7 all boys began military training to prepare for war. Spartan women were more educated than others due to their higher status.

COMPLETE THE HISTORICAL EQUATION ACCURATELY:

Greek states
vs.
Persian wars
=
The Persian Wars

Who won?
The Greek city states
What were some significant outcomes?
Explain.
It is significant that the Greeks won the Persian wars because society today depends upon such Athenian and Greek culture. For example the Greeks gifted us with democracy, ancient philosophy, art, architecture, and agriculture.

COMPLETE THE HISTORICAL EQUATION ACCURATELY:

Athens
vs.
Sparta
=
The Peloponnesian War

Who won?
Sparta
What were some significant outcomes?
Explain.
The Spartans took control of Athen’s once great empire after their victory. Despite their control over Athens, Sparta never fully recovered from the effects of war and was not able to conquer any neighboring lands. Persia was able to compensate for ols losses.

LONGEST-LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS: In your own words, list 3 of the most significant contributions for the Persians and for the Greeks on the chart below.

#
Persian SIGNIFICANT Contributions
Greek SIGNIFICANT Contributions
1
Despite the fact that this idea was not accepted from the beginning, the Persians introduced the idea of banning slavery.
The Greeks developed the idea of a Democracy, which is used in many countries today, including our own.
2
Insurance by the government was created by the Persian Empire, during Cyrus the Great’s reign.
One of many contributions from the Greeks include the alphabet, which is used to write in many modern-day languages.
3
Sanskrit, an ancient script, was also based in Persia, before it reached India.
The Greeks are honored for their achievements in art and pottery. These accomplishments gave inspiration for modern day pottery and design.

Works Cited
Bulliet, Richard, et al. The Earth and Its Peoples. 3rd ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

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