Memory involves the expression of knowledge that has already been acquired while learning is the process of the acquisition of new knowledge or skill. The information received regarding various experiences is not stored as verbatim copies in the memory as further information from the environment is integrated into the pre-existing knowledge that already exists. Knowledge is accumulated across every individual’s ontogenetic development process through the various experiences.
• Memory Development
Accumulated prior understanding increases an individual’s ability to recall and utilize new information. Memory development is regarded as self-reinforcing in that further information is readily stored on the memory. Similarly, the more patterns, concepts or objects individual stores in their mind, the easier it gets for the individual to retrieve and apply the information in new settings. Data enters the brain via sensory receptors where the data is stored for seconds. The brain filters the information and selects what should be paid attention to leading to the conscious perception of the information received (Cross & Israelit, 2009).
• Effective Processing
Short-term memory acts as the feature for a temporary recall of data processed at any time. It holds a small amount of information which can be remembered and treated at the same time. Perceived data is moved to either the short-term memory where it is stored for a few seconds or to the working memory which holds the information for longer. The short-term memory contains data for a short duration to enable the completion of a task or a simultaneous transaction (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2014). The short-term memory holds incomplete concepts that act as links or pointers to the brain to the rest of the accumulated knowledge.
The information stored in the short-term memory quickly disappears unless an individual makes a conscious effort to keep it for the next step of retention which is the long-term memory. Information is transferred to the long-term memory for permanent storage which can be improved through mental repetition, by allocating meaning to it and associating it with already acquired knowledge. The long-term memory is the predetermined storage information and has the potential to retain the unlimited amount of information over nearly indefinite periods (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2014).
Short-term memories are made into long-term memories through consolidation which involves rehearsal and meaningful attribution or association. Information is encoded in the long-term memory for storage semantically through organization ion based on its association, meaning and sometimes sound. Information in the long-term memory is forgotten when the synaptic connections of the strengthened neural network become weak, or activation of a new memory interferes with an older one (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2014).
• Attention and Perception
Attention is the process through which signals or information competes for the limited computing capacity by the brain. The brain constructs an internal schematic model for the operation of attention that leads it to conclude subjective experience. The focus is mostly defined as about the selective processing of various pieces of information above others. Since an individual’ senses are bombarded with vast information making it hard to process all the information in its entirety deeply, the brain develops the selection process to determine which information should be processed deeply (Graziano ; Webb, 2015). Signals of information thus compete for deeper processing which ultimately influences and guides an individual’s behavior. The brain has to control attention in a
Perception involves selection, organization, and interpretation of information. The perception process involves selection of stimuli that is passed through an individual’s perceptual filters, organized into the existing patterns or structures which are then interpreted by previous experiences (Jones, 2013). Perception is mainly a psychological and cognitive process, and the response is different for objects or people perceived favorably from that which is found to be unfavorable.
Selecting is the initial part of perception and involves focusing one’s attention on particular sensory information that is incoming. Attention is paid to the information that is considered salient which is then organized in the next stage of the perception process where it is sorted and categorized based on an individual’s natural or cognitive patterns that are learned. Information is classified based on the difference, similarity, and proximity (Jones, 2013). First-hand experiences organize interpersonal experiences and interactions.
The final stage of the perception process is interpreting which is more deliberate and involves a conscious step compared to selecting and organizing as these can happen very quickly without the need to apply conscious thought. At this stage, individuals assign meaning to various experiences via mental structures referred to as schemata which are databases of information that stored and is used to relate to new information or experiences (Jones, 2013).
• Types of Knowledge/Memory
Episodic memory represents an individual’s recollection of specific events and experiences over the duration of time in a serial form and the actual events that took place at a particular time can be reconstructed at any given time. Things like places, times, associated emotions, events and relevant contextual knowledge can be explicitly recalled and stated as individuals store the entire context related to these events in their memory (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2014).
Semantic memory is a structured record of meanings, facts, concepts, and knowledge concerning the external world that is acquired over time. This refers to the general education based on events that are not centered on personal experience buts share with others. Semantic memories that were once from own contexts are now turned into real expertise as it is relational and abstract (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2014). Semantic memories vary and can include social customs, food, vocabulary, capital cities and functions of objects among others.
Autobiographical memory is a self-referenced form of memory that contains memories from personal experiences that define purpose and identity to serve short-term and long-term goals. This form of memory moves beyond recalling past experiences as it integrates own perspective, evaluation, and interpretation over time to develop a personal history and defines an individual’s being and purpose in life (Fivush, 2011).
• False Memory Development
A false memory is a form of consciousness which distorts the experience and involves the confabulation of real experience with an imagined experience. They include mixing or confusing fragments of memorized events which might have happened at different times but are remembered as having occurred together. False memories are formed when real memories are combined content suggested or received from other people and may lead to an individual forget the source of information. Real memories are connected with others that are suggestively planted.
False memories are likely to be created due to external factors like social demands for individuals to remember specific events, imagination to make up for the events that can’t be recalled and the explicit encouragement for individuals not to consider the truth in their constructions. No one is immune to false memories as an individual is susceptible to confusing or distorting many minds depending on the context that they are required to recall the information.
Human beings go through various experiences in the different stages of development and accumulate knowledge which is used to detect the regularities in their environment. The intelligence gathered guides their behavior leads to the acquisition of more experience and enables them to make predictions regarding various aspects of their lives. Memory also allows us to have insight into our surroundings, helps us establish our identities and defines how we interact with others and the surrounding environment.
Copyright 2019 - Education WordPress Theme.