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LM1c: Lead and manage a team within a health and social care or children and young people’s setting

LM1c 1.1. Explain the features of effective team performance

The characteristics of an effective team which separates it from other group and makes it effective is the capability of the team to perform at the highest level for an extended period of time and to complete its work in the most efficient and effective manner and to the best of its ability. Teamwork produces its own quality that becomes successful in a group.

A good team is formed to complete the objective it is given. An effective team is expected to completing its goal by using the team’s resources. This does not mean that as individuals the people that make up the team share the same point of view. It means that when the team is presented with a goal, they can come together and work as a single unit to accomplish the task.

There are a number of features of a team which make it different from a group:
1. In an effective team, members share a high level of dedication to achieving the common objective.
2. Members of effective team knowledge a high level of satisfaction from being part of and working with the team.
3. In an effective team, members work well together in an integrated way, with a high level of awareness and understanding of each others’ strengths.
4. An effective team shows a high capability for solving its own problems. The skills exist and there is a willingness to act.
5. Most significant from the organization’s point of view is that an effective team is one producing high quality results. High quality results, it could be reasonably argued, are the outcome from the other characteristics of the effective team.

The qualities of a successful work team are, therefore, identifiable, quite specific and measurable. Although any group can possess any or all these characteristics, an effective team must display them all.

Clear Objectives: The team’s overall objective needs to be recognized and defined in terms which allow each member to understand the same goal. The leader has the responsibility in communicating a clear image of what the organization expects from the team. A style which encourages a questioning approach is likely to reveal any members’ doubts, misunderstandings or resistances which need to be positively managed.

Appropriate Leadership: Leadership is a shared function based on the need of the task rather than through consideration of formal role. This requires considerable flexibility in recognizing and allowing other team members to exercise real leadership when a member’s skills are more appropriate to the team at that time. There is an important leadership function. It is one of using skills to develop the team and making sure that time is allocated appropriately for team-building activities.
Commitment to the team: Team members experience real strength from their membership and the sharing of goals. They are keen to invest considerable energy in the interests of the team. Membership is very much valued and member behaviour is strongly influenced by considerations of team success. This is very different from the rather simple and (from the work effectiveness point of view) rather unproductive ‘WE’ feeling that is part of the experience of simply being with a group of people who get on well together and enjoy each others’ company.

A supportive team climate: The order of the day is participation and personal responsibility. Members are trusted to contribute in a responsible approach. Self-control replaces imposed control. Responsibility is widely shared throughout the team based on reason, given the skills and other strengths among members. Members are encouraged to contribute ideas, take risks and question the team and its activities openly without fear of control, disapproval or reprimand. The only condition is that the members’ behaviour is with the best interest of the team and its performance.

Getting things done: The successful team not only knows where it is going, it knows when it has arrived. It sets performance targets and milestones and establishes ways in which the team’s movement toward achieving the targets can be measured. It is important that performance targets are ones that represent something of a challenge to the team and its members without being unrealistic and consequently demoralizing. When the right performance standards are set, the team’s energy is directed towards achieving results. Team performance is constantly being appraised, in order to identify any problems in the team’s path or being experienced by members. This is an important responsibility for the team leader.

Working techniques: The team needs to spend time and effort into developing working techniques, methods, procedures and ground rules to move the team toward its goal in the most professional way consistent with preserving those other qualities associated with effective teams. These include techniques for making decisions, solving problems and generally coping with anything which gets in the way of progress.

Learning: The team and its members learn from their experiences, including their mistakes. Mistakes made in good faith do not lead to heavy penalties, but are included into expectations about the team and its members growing over time.
Problems are analyzed for what they can contribute to the individual and collective maturing process. Constructive criticism, based on finding and reason and intended to help the team and its members grow in competence is welcomed. These places a premium on fact-to-face skills associated with coaching and giving feedback. They will be particularly highly valued skills when used effectively by the team leader.

New members: New team members are quickly integrated into the team, their strengths identified, and contribution defined. Every effort is made to help the new member prove their value to the team quickly.

Managing the group: A successful working team acknowledge the meaning of observe the team itself and the way in which it is working. Understanding something of ‘group dynamics’ is an area of knowledge and skills which is very much developed in effective teams. Allocating time and energy to understanding and managing relationships is an important investment. The team leader should be able to display considerable competence in this respect. Responsibility for monitoring events is not invested in the team leader alone. It is shared among members, although some will be more competent than others and show preferences in the direction of ‘team maintenance’.

Relationships with other teams: An effective team also invests time and energy into developing ground rules for managing its relationships with other teams in a positive and productive way. This includes identifying areas of work where collaboration would clearly help one or both teams achieve results more efficiently or effectively. It includes maintaining open contact and frequently reviewing tasks priorities. Resources are shared where this will help progress toward a broader, but understood and shared, organizational objective. Joint problem solving is widely adopted and the tendency to ‘blame others’ is replaced in effective team working with a direction of effort toward understanding problems and finding solutions.

Success: The effectiveness of a team grows. All the conditions set out above develop more extensively and readily to the extent that the team meets with early, continued and acknowledged success. Two possible problems exist for very successful teams. First, they may be seen as so competent that they attract more work than they are able to handle resulting in overload and decline in performance. They may have to learn to say “no”. Even if they attract more resources of money and people to handle the extra work, they may suffer from problems of “bigness” and will almost certainly need to restructure into smaller satellites if they are to continue successfully.
The second problem for the successful group is one of complacency. Their very success and organization becomes their own worst rival, and they find it difficult to respond to new circumstances,

As a unit manager I am expected to undertake a full range of duties in the unit and manage and supervise a team of staff and maintain and manage the unit environment. My job indicates that I will be leading team, take part and I have the responsibility of motivating and inspiring them to achieve and to be successful. I must also provide support and implementing changes required and role model best practice to the staff. Being the focal point of my team I am able to challenge them and in doing so I can keep them all motivated. As a leader I should be able to see how my contribution has had an effect on the team which can include growth and development.

LM1c 1.2. Identify the challenges experienced by developing teams

The Challenge of Developing Teams

Teams as a collective can achieve much more than individuals. We have all probably encountered teams where great results were achieved and it seems that it almost happened by chance. Yet in truth developing teams is challenging. So what are some of the common challenges that you need to address in developing teams.

Lack of direction

Teams are no different from individuals in that they need to have clear direction. A team without direction or clarity about where it is heading will flounder in the dark and struggle to achieve real and possibly any results. If you want to increase the chances of team success, make sure that the team has a clear direction or outcome that it is seeking to achieve.

Dominant individuals

Some people are passionate about the area the team is working on or their organisation. Others might just generally be vocal and want to share their ideas. While the contributions are vital to the team and to the results achieved, they can also get in the way of the success of the team. If one person starts to dominate proceedings chances are that others will not get the opportunity to make their contributions. As a result they may become de-motivated and stop engaging. In teams it is important to make sure that everyone gets their time to offer their contributions.

Passive individuals

The passive individuals are those that are reluctant to offer their views. They might lack confidence in themselves or in the value of the contribution they believe they can make. These passive individuals can often have great contributions to make and it is important to find ways of involving them in a way that makes them feel safe and supported.

Opinion equals fact

One of the challenges in team development is separating opinion or hearsay from fact. You may have encountered a situation where someone says something like “everyone is disillusioned by lack of progress.” This is likely to be an opinion of one or a few people but not likely to be fact. In teams it is important that opinions are explored and debated to make sure that there is not an inherent assumption that opinion equals fact.

Accomplishment focus

Ever been part of a team or observed a team where on the face of it lots of things were being accomplished but nothing was sustainable. If so, chances are the team was rushing too much to accomplish or tick off things on a list rather than taking the time to discuss debate and really test solutions. While teams clearly need to achieve results , those results need to stand the test of time if they are to be of real value.

Within St Mary’s, good team work is where all team members understand, believe in and work towards the shared purpose of caring for resident. As a team leader I ensure all team members are working towards it in their day-to-day work. All teams move through different stages of development, but are at their most of assistance where there is honesty and trust, with members working to their own strengths. For me to know my team and earn their respect I have to develop a good working relationship with them. I have to be a good role model and be able to present an image and objectives for the team. When I started as a unit manager, I was the youngest team leader. I have several seniors and older member of the team. Occasionally I find them very dominant to me because of their experience and the longer time they been working in the nursing home. But regardless, it is about understanding and showing respect to all members of the team whoever they are.

LM1c 1.3 Identify the challenges experienced by established teams

Once the team is established, the major challenge is to make sure that it continues to work in the direction of the objectives of the setting as set out in your strategic plan. For this to happen, everyone in the team needs be working to keep operations running smoothly. As manager, it requires keeping the team together and the communication lines open. It also expects a good knowledge of the individuals who make up your team and the roles they play. Teamwork is not about getting people together and dictating to them you order, but rather about developing a commitment to the goals by establishing trust and cohesion.

Effective teamwork requires that all team members correspond well to each other and as a manager you need to be familiar with the resemblance as well as the differences in the individuals who make up your team. The main challenge is to respect those differences in personality and to work with these to be certain that the team does not have any conflicts.

Belbin’s research (1981) on the various roles needed in an effective team is worthy of note here. The Study looked at determining how problems could be predicted and avoided in teams by controlling the dynamics of the group.

Belbin’s nine team role

Action Oriented Roles Shaper Challenges the team to improve.

Implementer Puts ideas into action.

Completer Finisher Ensures thorough, timely completion

People Oriented Roles Coordinator Acts as a chairperson.

Team Worker Encourages cooperation.
Resource
Investigator Explores outside opportunities.

Thought Oriented Roles Plant Presents new ideas and approaches.

Monitor-Evaluator Analyzes the options.

Specialist Provides specialized skills.

https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_83.htm

Shaper

These are much focused people who ensure that the team keeps moving and recognise when an idea has had its day and the team need to try another method.

Implementer

This is the person in the team who carries out plan as efficiently as possible and takes forward and gathers the ideas that have come from the team. This person gets the task done.

Completer-Finisher

These are someone in the team who see that projects are completed thoroughly. They make sure there have been no errors and they pay attention to the smallest of details. They are very concerned with target and will push the team to make sure the job is completed on time. They are described as perfectionists who are orderly, conscientious and anxious.

Coordinator

These are the people who appoint work appropriately and have an ability to draw out team members and focus on the team’s objectives. They have a skill in bringing people together, recognising that every member of the team has got skill and make sure that everyone’s views are heard.

Team Worker

These are someone who carry out the work and holds the group together. Team workers are given an idea and they turn it into action immediately.

Resource Investigator

These are the cheerful, friendly person with lots of contacts within and outside the team. They are enthusiastic, adventurous and open-minded and always looking for new ideas. They are naturally good at developing and maintaining contacts, but may become careless when the innovation wears off.

Plant

These people tend to be highly creative and good at solving problems in unusual ways. As creative thinkers and problem solvers, they often find new ways of manage a problem and better ways of doing things.

Monitor-Evaluator

These people are sharp and objective, and they carefully evaluate the pros and cons of all the options before coming to a decision. In team meetings this person would bring the team back to task, enabling the team to focus. They are unlikely to be distracted by the emotions involved in the situation

Specialist

Specialists in their particular fields, for example, are those who focus on their own subject only. They can be seen as more independent and not really part of them.
Each role has its strengths and weaknesses and by being aware of the roles each of your staff exhibit and assigning them duties that fit that role, effective performance can be assured.

LM1c 1.4. Explain how challenges to effected team performance can be overcome.

There are a range of things which can say about develop an effective team, but straightforward isn’t one of them. The ways in which a team can be unsuccessful are as varied as the people who comprise them. The vital thing to remember is that a team isn’t so much about the people who are in it, as it is about the task at hand. Keeping this in mind can be helpful when things get sticky. A lot of the barrier is impossible to defeat. Here are the most common ways in which a team can fail, along with practical tips for turning problems into solutions.

Personal Conflicts Are Taking Over

Personality conflicts can be one of the biggest challenges in the workplace. Conflicts can usually be diffused by acceptance, understanding, appropriate action, and professionalism. It’s very important to remember that while you cannot control the behaviour of other people, you can control how you respond to it. When conflicts can be resolved, the result is a happier and more productive workplace. The vital thing is not to let personality conflict and negative work relationships get in the way with your career. Address them, resolve them, or as a last resort move on.

Only a Few Carry the Team’s Load

Once in a while it’s easier just to hang back and let the team’s high achiever take over. The problem with this is that no one or two people can carry the entire team’s workload for long. For a while, the staff member will get a hint about what’s going on and will stop killing themselves to get the work done and the entire team will go down as a result. Some people get a feeling of happiness from being needed all the time.

Poor Communication

Poor communication can create conflict in a number of ways. A lack of communication can create uncertainty that leads to stress and mistrust. For example, one care worker may be waiting for a colleague to get the nurse to do a resident’s dressing, so that the task can be complete on time, but if the colleague fails to inform the nurse this will cause a break up in the work flow and can cause delay in other task. As a result, conflict between the two may occur and the care staff would not want to work with that colleague.

By working as part of a team at St Mary’s can be overpowering and sometimes stressful, depending on those I work with and what I am doing. Even though teamwork is challenging, it also can be rewarding and can help me fulfil tasks quickly. I may be able to overcome the challenges of working on a team by having commitment, a positive attitude and an open mind. For instance, as a unit manager part of my job is to delegate work to the care staff that will need to fulfil the responsibility, be clear about the time they have, and the people they can call on to help them to do the job, and in case when I have new staff I must make sure they are supervised with correct roles to best training and development. But we can be busy at our job, except for one person who spends a lot of time with just one resident. When care staff asks her for help, she talks about how busy she is. Then other staff member will get the clue about what’s going on and will stop speeding up to get the work done. I called a meeting with her to discuss how she can improve her time spent with one resident, so that she can be able to complete her other task. Within a few weeks she gets better.

LM1c 1.5. Analyse how different management styles may influence outcomes of team performance.

The way a manager leads a team is a huge factor behind what their team accomplishes and produces. It can impact the productivity of their staff and the overall output of the organization. Organizational efficiency is a by product of each department, which can be significantly influenced by the different forms that management can take. There’s no universal standard or approach, when it comes to management styles. The most suitable approach eventually depends on the structure of your team.

The important thing is that good leaders and managers are able to generate enthusiasm and commitment in others. They lead by example, with consistent values and break down barriers, which stand in the way of achievement.
• A good leader will also inspire a shared vision and enlist the commitment of others.
• A good leader will promote shared working, which builds trust and empowers others.
• A good leader recognizes others’ achievements and celebrates accomplishments.

Lewin et al. (1939) described leadership styles and although somewhat dated they remain relevant to team leadership and management today. He identified three very different leadership styles.

Autocratic / Authoritarian or I want you to…

This style demands the leader/manager to make decisions on their own without consulting the team. Autocratic leaders make choices or decisions based on their own beliefs and do not involve others for their suggestion or advice. There is an expectation on their part that the team will follow the decision exactly, enabling the task to be accomplished in the least amount of time. By using this style means that instructions have to be clear and concise. Disappointment sets in when the team members have ideas but are unable to voice these and are not consulted on decisions being made. This type of leadership is good in situations requiring immediate or emergency action. It will be able to react to the situation promptly compared to other leadership styles, because of streamlined organizational structure and quick decision-making ability.

Democratic / Participative or ‘Let’s work together to solve this.’

This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process. This is normally used when I have part of the information, and my employees have other parts. A leader is not expected to know everything this is why I employ knowledgeable and skilled people. Using this style is of mutual benefit as it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that my employees will respect. The democratic style is the most popular style of leadership and management but it also has its drawbacks.
Teams are made up of individuals with vastly different opinions and decision-making can therefore be a lengthy process. The leader must be prepared in this case to make the final decision in a collaborative way.

Laissez-faire or ‘You two take care of the problem while I go.’

The team is allowed to make its own decisions and get on with the tasks. This may work well when people are capable and motivated in making their own decisions. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. However, one of the problems of this style is the tendency to go off task with the result that the outcomes are never achieved. This will lead to the team becoming impatient with the amount of time it takes or make a decision.

Part of a manager’s role is to encourage others to work effectively and whichever style you adopt, you need to be able to rationalize why you chose that way to work. The outcomes will be affected if you fail to recognize the effect of your style of leadership is having on the team. An effective team is committed to working towards the same goals and the team members will cooperate with the decisions made. In well-managed teams, results are produced quickly and economically where there is a free exchange of ideas and information.

Other Leadership Styles

There are many different models of leadership style, here are 6 styles described by Daniel Goleman.

Coercive leaders demand immediate obedience.

In a single phrase, this style is ‘Do what I tell you’. These leaders show initiative, self-control, and drive to succeed. There is, of course, a time and a place for such leadership: a battlefield is the classic example, but any crisis will need clear, calm, commanding leadership. This style does not, however, encourage anyone else to take the initiative, and often has a negative effect on how people feel.

Pace-setting leaders expect excellence and self-direction.

This style can be summed up as ‘Do as I do, now’. The Pace-setter very much leads by example, but this type of leadership only works with a highly-competent and well-motivated team. It can only be sustained for a while without team members flagging. Like the Coercive leader, Pace-setters also show drive to succeed and initiative, but instead of self-control, these are coupled with conscientiousness

Authoritative leaders move people towards a vision.

This style is probably best summed up as ‘Come with me’. These leaders are visionary and it’s the most useful style when a new vision or clear direction is needed, and is most strongly positive. Authoritative leaders are high in self-confidence and empathy, acting as a change catalyst by drawing people into the vision and engaging them with the future.

An affiliative leader values and creates emotional bonds and harmony.

Affiliative leaders believe that ‘People come first’. Such leaders demonstrate empathy, and strong communication skills, and are very good at building relationships. This style is most useful when a team has been through a difficult experience, and needs to heal rifts, or develop motivation. It is not a very goal oriented style, so anyone using it will need to make sure others understand that the goal is team harmony, and not specific tasks. It is probably obvious from this that it cannot be used on its own for any length of time if you need to ‘get the job done’.

The democratic leader builds consensus through participation.

Democratic leaders are constantly asking ‘What do you think?’ Such leaders show high levels of collaboration, team leadership and strong communication skills. This style of leadership works well in developing ownership for a project, but it can make for slow progress towards goals, until a certain amount of momentum has built up. Anyone wishing to use this style will need to make sure that senior managers are signed up to the process, and understand that it may take time to develop the consensus.

The coaching leader will develop people.

The phrase that sums up this leadership style is ‘Try it’ Coaching leaders allow people to try different approaches to problem solving and achieving a goal in an open way. The coaching leader shows high levels of empathy, self-awareness and skills in developing others. A coaching style is especially useful when an organisation values long-term staff development.

As a unit manager I can see myself performing in both leader and manager. I have to guide my team. As a unit manager, I have to manage the work and be able to direct day-to-day task for my team. I am also involved in process management which can include applying work rules and policy, processes, standards and operating procedures. I have to look after the whole unit by sorting out their needs both residents and staff. I also use staff meetings, supervisions and training sessions to evaluate my own and others within the team’s performance to ensure that we are achieving our health and safety requirements as well as promoting a person centred approach that ensure a balanced approach to risk assessments that cover the care home. Any changes to a resident care plan will be discussed in our daily handover to make sure that all staff that supports the residents knows of these changes and the other assets and support that is being put in by the people who are supporting the residents. These changes will be recorded in their care plan and reviewed monthly. One vital traits as a unit manager is to have a good communication and relationship with staff. It is very important for them to feel that I guide and support them all the time.

LM1c 1.6. Analyse methods of developing and maintaining:
1. Trust
2. Accountability

Trust develops from consistent actions that show colleagues you are reliable, cooperative and committed to team success. A sense of belief in the workplace better allows employees to work together for a common goal. Trust does not always happen naturally, especially if previous actions make the employees question if you are reliable. Take stock of the current level of trust in the workplace, identifying potential roadblocks. An action plan to build positive relationships helps improve the overall work environment for all employees.
However, when trust is in place, each individual in the team becomes stronger, because he or she is part of an effective, cohesive group. When people trust one another, the group can achieve truly meaningful goals.

The Importance of Trust
One definition describes trust as a “reliance on the character, ability, strength, or truth of someone or something.” Trust means that you rely on someone else to do the right thing. You believe in the person’s honesty and strength, to the extent that you’re able to put yourself on the line, at some risk to yourself.
Trust is important to an effective team, because it provides a sense of safety. When your team members feel safe with each other, they feel at ease to open up, take appropriate risks, and expose vulnerabilities.

Without trust there’s less improvement, group effort, creative thinking, and productivity, and people spend their time protecting themselves and their wellbeing. This is time that should be spent helping the group attain its goals.
Trust is also essential for knowledge sharing. So if your team members trust one another, they’re far more likely to share knowledge, and communicate openly.
Strategies for Building Trust
1. Lead by Example
This means trusting your team, your colleagues, and your boss. Never forget that your team members are always watching and taking cues from you take the opportunity to show them what trust in others really looks like. If you want to build trust within your team, then lead by example, and show your staff that you trust others.
2. Communicate Openly
Open communication is important for building trust. You need to get everyone on your team talking to one another in an honest, meaningful way, and you can use several strategies to achieve this.
3. Know Each Other Personally
To build trust is to encourage your team members to see their colleagues as people. Think about creating situations that help them share personal stories, and bond. Do this by asking sensitively about their family, or about their hobbies. Start by sharing some personal information about yourself, and then ask someone else about a hobby, or a musical interest. Another way to get the team up to date, and to form stronger bonds, is to socialize after work or at lunch.
4. Don’t Place Blame
When people work together, honest mistakes and disappointments happen, and it’s easy to blame someone who causes these. On the other hand, when everyone starts pointing fingers, a terrible atmosphere can quickly develop. This lowers morale, undermines trust, and is ultimately unproductive. Instead, encourage everyone in your group to think about the mistake in a practical way. What can you all do to fix what happened, and move forward together? And how can you make sure that this mistake doesn’t happen again?
5. Discourage Cliques
Sometimes, cliques can form within a team, often between team members who share common interests or work tasks. However, these groups can even accidentally make others feel isolated. They can also weaken trust between group members.
6. Discuss Trust Issues
An established team that has trust issues, it’s essential to find out how these problems create, so that you can come up with a approach for overcoming them.
Consider giving team members a questionnaire to fill out anonymously. Ask them about the level of trust within the group, as well as why they think there’s a lack of trust. Once you’ve understand the results, get everyone together to talk about these issues.

Accountability
Accountability means being held responsible for complete a goal or assignment. Unfortunately, the word “accountability” often signifies punishment or negative consequences. Certainly, management should not put up with poor performance and should take action when it occurs. However, when organizations use accountability only as a big stick for punishing employees, fear and anxiety permeate the work environment. Employees are afraid to try new methods or propose new ideas for fear of failure. On the other hand, if approached correctly, accountability can produce positive, valuable results.
Positive results of accountability
The positive results of practicing a positive approach to accountability include:
? improved performance,
? more employee effort and involvement,
? increased feelings of competency,
? increased employee dedication to the work,
? more creativity and innovation, and
? higher employee morale and satisfaction with the work.
These positive results happen when employees view accountability programs as helpful and progressive methods of assigning and finishing work. For example, managers who involve employees in setting goals and expectations find that employees understand expectations better, are more confident that they can achieve those expectations, and perform at a higher level. Positive results also occur when employees don’t associate accountability only with negative consequences. If employees do not fear failure, if managers recognize employees for their accomplishments, and if managers support their employees when goals become difficult, employees are more likely to be creative, innovative, and committed to their work.
Implementing accountability for positive results
Managers can practice accountability for positive results by following good performance management principles. They can use their agencies’ performance appraisal programs to establish expectations in employee performance plans and use formal awards programs to recognize employees. However, simply following the minimum requirements of formal programs is not enough to create the positive environment required for constructive accountability. Managers need to:
? involve employees in setting clear, challenging yet attainable goals and objectives, and give them the authority to accomplish those goals;
? coach employees when they request help, and support employees in all aspects of the job;
? monitor progress towards goals, and provide feed-back that includes credible, useful performance measures;
? provide the training and resources employees need to do the work; and
? recognize employees for good performance, both formally and informally.

LM1c 1.7. Compared methods of addressing conflict within a team

Conflict arises from differences when individuals come together in work teams their differences in terms of influence, values and attitudes, and common factors all contribute to the making of conflict. It is normally difficult to expose the sources of conflict. Some amount of conflict can be healthy, as long as it is discussed and a conclusion is reached. Opposing viewpoints can in fact bring new opinion and discussions on aspects of an assignment that had not been imagined before.
The type of conflict you have to worry about more is unspoken resentment that can explode in an outburst, or even more deadly, difference from agreed upon roles, tasks and goals.
The goal of the project manager should be to get your team to a place where they can honestly discuss differing views without it resulting it an uproar or hurt feelings. The following ten methods are used to create harmony in your team and your project.

1. Be Aware That Conflict Occurs

Knowing that conflict may and will happen is the first step to resolving it, especially if you know that certain team members may disagree with each other. By recognizing that there will be conflict, a project manager knows what to look forward to.

2. Set the Ground Rules

At the beginning of your project set some ground rules in your first meeting. Be certain to address what process will be taken to address conflicts, as they are bound to rise and will need to be taken care of before they spiral out of control. Tell team members that everyone’s ideas are applicable and that they shouldn’t be dismissed, even if you do not agree with them.

3. Learn About Destructive Conflicts

Conflict becomes negative when no resolution is in sight or the issue cannot be resolved. A psychological model for explaining destructive patterns is the persecutor-victim-rescuer triangle. The persecutor would be the bad-guy or bully in this scenario, but the rescuer is also placing him or herself in a position of advantage over the supposed victim. Stop yourself if you see yourself slipping into any of these roles and also try to recognize it in your team.

4. Stop Conflict when it Happens

Conflict should be addressed straight away before it can grow. If a discussion grows heated during a meeting, do not wait until the next meeting to address the issue. As an alternative, discuss the issue while in the meeting; even if members disagree, they are still able to see each other’s points of view.

5. Get the Whole Story

Be sure you are familiar with the perspectives of every person involved. Conflicts take place when there are differences of opinion, but also due to miscommunication or misunderstanding. As the project manager, you should get all the information you can in regards to the conflict so that you can resolve it efficiently and effectively.

6. Meet for Resolutions

If the conflict can’t be resolved during the initial meeting, set up a separate meeting with those that are having the conflicts, so that a decision can be reached without getting the other team members involved and choose sides.

7. Discuss Both Sides of a Perspective

Even if you are inclined to agree with one side of the conflict, do not make a final judgment until each person has had their say. Ending a discussion without hearing each person out can increase the problem. Explain the pros and cons of both ideas, so that both people can take into account the opposing view.

8. Make Compromise a Goal

Compromising between parties is helpful, as it can allow for both conflicting parties the ability to use their ideas. Most times, points can be combined in order to make a better idea or solution.

9. Avoid Falling into Groupthink

Groupthink is when a group suppresses the opposing views of members in order to create harmony. While it is always good to maintain harmony within a group while working on a project, this idea of keeping opposing viewpoints at bay because they will interrupt the norm will end up doing more harm than good. To avoid this, make sure that there are one or two members that bring up constructive criticism to ideas.

10. Don’t Try to Change a Team Member

This final point might be the most important. Just as in any type of relationship, do not try to change a member of your team. They are an individual person with unique ideas and forms of expression. Trying to change their feelings or viewpoints will only lead to bitterness. You can propose to them alternatives, or list benefits of other ideas, but in the end you may just have to accept that they will disagree with an outcome.
Sometimes conflict can be harmful by bringing ideas up from different people; sometimes it can be detrimental to the overall productivity of the group and its members. Remember to allow people to express their ideas, even if they differ.

LM1c 2.1. Identify the components of a positive culture within your own team

A positive workplace culture is absolutely central to quality care and support, which is why recognising and understanding the elements of culture is so important.
It will promote every employer to make certain that their workforce can identify the positive aspects of a workplace culture and understand the impact it can have upon performance and outcomes.
Good leadership will promote positive culture from employees; a negative culture will check the atmosphere and result in more employees calling in sick, feeling miserable and lacking in interest and eventually some handing in their letters of resignation.

As a unit manager I am be able to create a workforce culture where talented staff are valued and retained. There are 5 components of culture symbols, language, values, believes and norms. A good leadership promotes positive culture and which is followed by important team meetings and effective communication. Behaviour plays a major role which interacts with society either appropriate or inappropriate. Individuals vary with attitudes and despite being positive or negative, they still should be treated fairly. Individual who works within positive workplace cultures are more likely to benefit from a united sense of identity and feelings of belongings this can encourage loyalty to the employer and collaborate team working. There are several ways to build a productive culture at work. I can help myself to do this by looking at my present situation and finding ways to improve the workplace culture by changing people’s attitudes to their job, their environment. I need to identify any defect that is causing negative attitudes such as staff calling in sick, arriving late to work, poor communication etc. For example: – St Mary Convent and Nursing Home is a mult culture environment, I had a staff that used to work doing home help. Where she came to work at St Mary’s she found that thing are a bit different from the home help environment. I stated encouraging her to learn how to do thing in the nursing home. With the help I gave her and training, she was happy I gave her that support she needed. As a unit manager I must support staff with a positive culture as this will also promote positive outcome for the residents. If staff has a positive leadership it will provide and promote good quality care. As a unit manager I must always makes my staff valued. All staff should be able to support one another so as to develop their weak point and to be able to share their strength.

LM1c 3.1. Identify the factors that influence the vision and strategic direction of the team
“Strategic planning is the process by which members of an organization envision its future and develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future.” Pfeiffer, Goodstein, Nolan, 1986 and Rothwell, 1989

Strategic planning is also “a process of defining the values, purpose, vision, mission, goals and objectives of an organization. Through the planning process, a jurisdiction or agency identifies the outcomes it wants to achieve through its programs and the specific means by which it intends to achieve these outcomes.” Factors that tend to influence the vision and strategic direction of an organization or team are:

? The ability of the team to identify factors that may impact the way it conducts its business e.g. Staffs skills, resources and needs, and external factors like resourcing, partnerships and award of contracts.

? The use of surveys to gather information from clients and institutions, and the results used to priorities the expectations as a basis for setting objectives.

? The formulation of a mission statement that would define the teams existence and scope.

? The general objectives which will broadly describe what the organisation seeks to achieve in the light of the identified needs, and activities to carry out and directions designed to reach the objectives established.

In order to carry out of St Mary’s mission, aims and objectives the service setting should have updated care plans for residents, which meet their needs in all areas of their lives. I had discussed with my staff members during our staff meeting how important it is to update our residents care plan, report immediately changes that they encounter with the residents such as mobility, skin integrity, appetite, etc update and record monthly observations.

LM1c 3.4. Evaluate how the vision and strategic direction of the team influences team practice

Leaders need to present teams with a set vision for the staff and others. It is the likely to influence organizational members and to carry out changes and employers to fellow their own ideas. Strategic leaders work in doubtful surroundings on very difficult issues that influence and are influenced by occasions and organizations external to their own.

Visions matter they are useful to motivate and gain commitment, but what really inspires people are results, seeing things happen and the feeling that they are achieving goals. Providing teams with a regular review of what has been achieved and what’s next will go a long way towards keeping people keen. Leaders have to direct and shape the teams they lead. Renewing this on a regular basis is useful, it helps people to know that they are still going in the direction they thought they were. And also if staff being able to see that they have opportunities to progress is very motivating and is likely to result in improved retention of staff. It is another economically sound strategy.

LM1c 4.2. Analyse how the skills, interests, knowledge and expertise within the team can meet agreed objectives

As a unit manager I work with my team ensuring that they are treated by means of respect and needs of residents are met. I carry out our staff supervision and encourage my staff to expand their own skills and knowledge. Working along regularly with my team, this will allows me to get to know and understand my staffs recognize their strengths and weak points. As part of my team this allows me to make use of their skills to the advantage and also observe, identify and agree on areas of improvement. I encourage them to develop their own skills and knowledge. For them to make enquiries for any further training they may need to enhance, expand their skills for further experience. This will give staff confidence and self worth in their work. It is important to maintain good communication within a team for it achievement. This allows colleagues to discuss any issues and concerns and hopefully find an agreeable solution. As a unit manager I have found if effective to observe, reflect and review team member performance regularly, usually by team meetings, every working day and supervisions.

LM1c 6.4. Explain how team members are managed when performance does not meet requirements

The reason of managing performance is to make certain that individuals can achieve their best and perform their part in meeting the aim and goals of the team in a way that is reliable with values and culture. Therefore managing under performance is about me as a unite manager to manage any cases where this is not happening.
Managing under performance is not always straightforward. However, the effects of not dealing with it can involve unreasonable to other staff. In most cases if under performance is not addressed it becomes more difficult to manage. It is important to deal effectively with any issues as soon as possible.
Underperformance can be exhibited in the following ways:
• unacceptable work performance, a failure to perform the duties to the standard necessary
• non-cooperation with workplace policies and procedures
• unacceptable behaviour in the workplace
• negative behaviour that impacts on co-workers.
Underperformance is not the same as misconduct. Misconduct is very serious behaviour such as theft or assault which may warrant instant dismissal. In cases of misconduct employers should seek specific advice about how to proceed before taking any action.

Using my management skills I need to identify the potential problems, I speak to the individual, investigate and gather evidence, such as documentary evidence, physical evidence or a testimony, before I can fully address it. Ability and motivation go together to impact performance, and the most successful performance improvement efforts combine strategies for improving each. This creates a helpful environment where people feel supported to reach their performance potential and feel valued, knowing that the organization wants to find a good fit for their abilities. For example one staff member who always arrive late for work which make a drawback to task, as well as have a negative impact for others. I arrange a meeting to discuss the issue with the staff. I highlight and explain how significant it is at St Mary’s that they come on time and how it affects the residents and other staffs when they do not turn up on time for duty.