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Labor Reaction on Adopting the Current Modern Technology in Sri Lankan Construction Industry A Thesis by G Y S GUNAWARDANE QS / 15 / 016 Supervised by Mr

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Labor Reaction on Adopting the Current Modern Technology in Sri Lankan Construction Industry
A Thesis by
G Y S GUNAWARDANE
QS / 15 / 016
Supervised by
Mr. AARK AmarathungaSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of BSc (Hons) in
Quantity Surveying Degree
GENERAL SIR JOHN KOTELAWALA DEFENSE UNIVERSITY. SOUTHERN CAMPUS
2018
DECLARATION OF THE CANDIDATE & SUPERVISOR DEDICATION
“I declare that this is my own work and this Thesis does not incorporate without acknowledgement any material previously submitted for a Degree or Diploma in any other University or institute of higher learning and to the best of my knowledge and belief it does not contain any material previously published or written by another person except where the acknowledgement is made in the text. In addition, I hereby grant to KDU the non-exclusive right to reproduce and distribute my Thesis, in whole or in part in print, electronic or other medium. I retain the right to use this content in whole or part in future works (such as articles or books).

Signature: ………………….. Date:.…….…………………….

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The supervisor/s should certify the Thesis with the following declaration.

The above candidate has carried out research for the partial fulfillment of the BSc in
Quantity Surveying Degree Thesis under my supervision.

Signature of the supervisor :………………………. Date…………………………

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The great feat of completing the dissertation would not have been a success if not for the guidance, encouragement and assistance of many individuals I came across during my research work. I would like to take this opportunity to thank them for their supports.

At the outset, I am greatly indebted to Mr. AARK Amarathunga and Mr. Ramdima Senarathne for the assistance given me on the threshold of the study highlighting the importance of the topic and the precious advices given during entire period of this research study. Their valuable guidance is embodied throughout this research as my supervisors.

I wish to deliver my gratefulness towards Dr. SD Jasuriya (Head of the Department of Quantity Surveying), Mr. AARK Amarathunga (Research coordinator) and all the staff members of the Department of Quantity Surveying for the encouragement given me during the final year of university. Also a word of thank should be given to all non-academic staff members of the Department for the valuable.

My exceptional tribute must go to my juniors and seniors for the help and encouragement given and for spiritual emotional reinforcement all through the final year of university. Finally, my sincere gratitude passed to my colleagues and my heartiest thanks extended to my parents and family members.

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENT TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION OF THE CANDIDATE & SUPERVISOR DEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc526772955 h iiACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc526772956 h iiiABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc526772957 h iiiTABLE OF CONTENT PAGEREF _Toc526772958 h ivLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc526772959 h vLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc526772960 h vLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS PAGEREF _Toc526772961 h v1.INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc526772962 h 11.1.Overview of Background PAGEREF _Toc526772963 h 11.2.Problem statement PAGEREF _Toc526772964 h 31.3.Aim PAGEREF _Toc526772965 h 41.4.Objectives PAGEREF _Toc526772966 h 41.5.Scope and Limitations PAGEREF _Toc526772967 h 51.6.Chapter breakdown PAGEREF _Toc526772968 h 62.LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc526772969 h 7References PAGEREF _Toc526772970 h 9
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSQS – Quantity Surveyor
SL – Sri Lanka
CSR – Corporate Social Responsibility
1.INTRODUCTION
1.1.Overview of BackgroundThe Global construction trade consists of the main part of domestic trade & international trade and international trade includes a major quantity of the world economy. If In comparing to domestic and international supply chain opportunities in exchange, the services and goods between the countries, and these construction supply chain linked in world widely ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.05.040″,”ISSN”:”03787788″,”abstract”:”International trade supplies a great number of new opportunities for the development of the construction industry in relation to globalisation. Many construction industry studies relevant to international trade have focused on the evaluation of national trade performance in energy from the viewpoint of the whole economy or of a specific product. Intermediate demand and input, as significant components of the input–output table, indicate the interrelationships between economic sectors, as well as the economic structure in relation to aspects of production and consumption. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the international trade in construction products and services with a focus on their embodied energy consumed at the intermediate level. A multi-regional input–output method is adopted to assess the transfer of embodied energy that accompanies the international trade of the global construction industries. The net embodied energy in the construction industry of each world region has been identified based on its exports and imports. The results indicate that the average embodied energy consumption in intermediate demand over 1999–2009 accounted for approximately 90% in the world construction industries. International construction industries were dominated by activities of intermediate production which aimed to satisfy the embodied energy consumption in the intermediate and final requirements. The USA, China, Japan, Spain and India were the top five in the scale of the intermediate consumption of embodied energy. The production of intermediate goods and services in some world regions decreased its dependence on embodied energy imports from the international construction industries. This study highlights the influence of the international trade in embodied energy on the development of the construction industry at the intermediate level. The outcomes provide considerable resources and references for policy adjustment and strategy design in the management of international trade for the construction sector.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Liu”,”given”:”Bin”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wang”,”given”:”Dedong”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Xu”,”given”:”Youquan”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Liu”,”given”:”Chunlu”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Luther”,”given”:”Mark”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Energy and Buildings”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”489-501″,”title”:”Embodied energy consumption of the construction industry and its international trade using multi-regional input–output analysis”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”173″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=268d4903-10fd-4666-8fa5-fa6f2810529d”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Liu <i>et al.</i>, 2018)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Liu, Wang, Xu, Liu, Chunlu & Mark, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Liu et al., 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Liu <i>et al.</i>, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Liu, Wang, Xu, Liu, Chunlu & Mark, 2018). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is extensively contained in social phenomenon, mostly in the trade, resources, and financial & marketing subdivisions, where the commercial activities produce considerable stakeholders’ interest. So the construction industry, CSR was become a growing outline in current periods, in mainly for two contradictory reasons. If in one hand, the construction industry is fundamentally ‘undependable’ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.157″,”ISSN”:”09596526″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Xia”,”given”:”Bo”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Olanipekun”,”given”:”Ayokunle”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Chen”,”given”:”Qing”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Xie”,”given”:”Linlin”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Liu”,”given”:”Yong”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Cleaner Production”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,”9″},”page”:”340-353″,”title”:”Conceptualising the state of the art of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the construction industry and its nexus to sustainable development”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”195″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3b55ef95-7192-4197-afcb-c44f6a06b599″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Xia <i>et al.</i>, 2018)”,”manualFormatting”:”( Xia, Olanipekun, Chen, Xie, Liu & Yong, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Xia et al., 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Xia <i>et al.</i>, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}( Xia, Olanipekun, Chen, Xie, Liu ; Yong, 2018). European labor markets change in several important scopes. For instance, the analysis of wage settings, the stage of lowermost wages, the regulation of flexible-hours arrangements, or the stage and period of unemployment compensation only not vary significantly across nation of states, they also underwent important labor market improvements, during the past decade in quite a lot of countries. While many economists and policy makers request for further reorganization to flexibility of labor markets, others are concerns about rising wage difference and loss of job stability in response to such reforms ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.euroecorev.2016.02.001″,”ISSN”:”00142921″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kaas”,”given”:”Leo”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”?ahin”,”given”:”Aysegul”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”European Economic Review”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″,”5″},”page”:”1-2″,”title”:”Introduction to the special issue on European labor market issues”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”84″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1cfd205e-d1eb-4be5-9512-1f656dd14f93″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kaas & ?ahin, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kaas & ?ahin, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kaas & ?ahin, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kaas ; ?ahin, 2016).

According to the researchers, the construction industry was mainly engaged in the construction of infrastructures and buildings (including the all categories of buildings), building structures and also further, they said interconnected services and trades; they are the fourth largest main parameter in their country (Australia) economy and construction industry was provided very large range job opportunities ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.04.015″,”ISSN”:”03601323″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hurlimann”,”given”:”Anna C.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Browne”,”given”:”Geoffrey R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Warren-Myers”,”given”:”Georgia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Francis”,”given”:”Valerie”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Building and Environment”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,”6″},”page”:”235-245″,”title”:”Barriers to climate change adaptation in the Australian construction industry – Impetus for regulatory reform”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”137″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1ec7cd8b-f19f-49e7-b709-12966ee301c0″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hurlimann <i>et al.</i>, 2018)”,”manualFormatting”:”( Hurlimann, Anna, Browne, Geoffrey, Warren-Myers, Georgia, Francis & Valerie, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hurlimann et al., 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hurlimann <i>et al.</i>, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}( Hurlimann, Anna, Browne, Geoffrey, Warren-Myers, Georgia, Francis ; Valerie, 2018). Stakeholders in construction industry, who are the parties of leading, controlling, monitoring and execution of the construction project in inception to completion. According to that, labor resource was the one part of the stakeholders. So existence of high productivity of labor of each phase of a project development play a specific, important role to project accomplishment; According to that, administration decisions are affect to the labor productivity and it can be influence to success of construction project execution. Because a main share of construction budget was, allocate according to the labor expenditure ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:3(197)”,”ISBN”:”2008131972041″,”ISSN”:”0733-9364″,”abstract”:”Generally, a contractor has three options in accelerating a construction schedule: working longer hours, increasing the number of workers, or creating an additional shift of workers. There has been a significant amount of research conducted on scheduled overtime on construction labor productivity. However, little information has been found in the literature addressing the labor inefficiency associated with working a second shift. This paper has qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative part details why and how shift work affects labor productivity, and then addresses the appropriate use of shift work. The quantitative component determines the relationship between the length of shift work and labor efficiency. The results of the research show that shift work has the potential to be both beneficial and detrimental to the productivity of construction labor. Small amounts of well-organized shift work can serve as a very effective response to schedule compression. The productivity loss, obtained from the quantification model developed through this study, ranges from 11 to 17% depending on the amount of shift work used.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hanna”,”given”:”Awad S.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Chang”,”given”:”Chul-Ki”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sullivan”,”given”:”Kenneth T.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lackney”,”given”:”Jeffery A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Construction Engineering and Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2008″,”3″},”page”:”197-204″,”title”:”Impact of Shift Work on Labor Productivity for Labor Intensive Contractor”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”134″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ae8479b8-e864-4082-83f7-82f994498306″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hanna <i>et al.</i>, 2008)”,”manualFormatting”:”( Hanna, Chang, Sullivan, Lackney & Jeffery, 2008 ; Sonmez, 2007)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hanna et al., 2008)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hanna <i>et al.</i>, 2008)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}( Hanna, Chang, Sullivan, Lackney ; Jeffery, 2008 ; Sonmez, 2007).

Improving construction efficiency can grow some way toward managing cost and time overruns ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kaming, P. F., Holt, G. D., Kometa, S. T. and Olomolaiye”,”given”:”Po”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Project Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”16″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1998″},”page”:”107–113″,”title”:”Severity diagnosis of productivity problems – A reliability diagnosis”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=34b38c99-506a-43b7-aba9-b1a124be6ec4″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kaming, P. F., Holt, G. D., Kometa, S. T. and Olomolaiye, 1998)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Kaming, Holt, Kometa, & Olomolaiye, 1998)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kaming, P. F., Holt, G. D., Kometa, S. T. and Olomolaiye, 1998)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kaming, P. F., Holt, G. D., Kometa, S. T. and Olomolaiye, 1998)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kaming, Holt, Kometa, ; Olomolaiye, 1998). Many kind of stakeholders, labor Resources and financial sources as a source of consumption. Nevertheless, labor income cannot be capitalized and is therefore not traded in capital markets. Householders are used their financial assets to protect, minimizing risks from labor income (as an example; they want to run smooth consumption), their overall demand should be present in their allocation to financial properties and in charges ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1111/1468-0297.00488″,”ISSN”:”00130133″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Heaton”,”given”:”John”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lucas”,”given”:”Deborah”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”The Economic Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”460″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2000″,”1″},”page”:”1-26″,”title”:”Portfolio Choice in the Presence of Background Risk”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”110″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cc3daa64-6712-4dd7-9049-a1713db427af”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Heaton & Lucas, 2000)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Heaton & Lucas, 2000 ; Viceira, 2001)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Heaton & Lucas, 2000)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Heaton & Lucas, 2000)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Heaton ; Lucas, 2000 ; Viceira, 2001). Construction is a labor-intensive and physically demanding industry, and employees working in direct sunlight tend to be more vulnerable to high temperatures in outdoor working environments ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.05.040″,”ISSN”:”03787788″,”abstract”:”International trade supplies a great number of new opportunities for the development of the construction industry in relation to globalisation. Many construction industry studies relevant to international trade have focused on the evaluation of national trade performance in energy from the viewpoint of the whole economy or of a specific product. Intermediate demand and input, as significant components of the input–output table, indicate the interrelationships between economic sectors, as well as the economic structure in relation to aspects of production and consumption. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the international trade in construction products and services with a focus on their embodied energy consumed at the intermediate level. A multi-regional input–output method is adopted to assess the transfer of embodied energy that accompanies the international trade of the global construction industries. The net embodied energy in the construction industry of each world region has been identified based on its exports and imports. The results indicate that the average embodied energy consumption in intermediate demand over 1999–2009 accounted for approximately 90% in the world construction industries. International construction industries were dominated by activities of intermediate production which aimed to satisfy the embodied energy consumption in the intermediate and final requirements. The USA, China, Japan, Spain and India were the top five in the scale of the intermediate consumption of embodied energy. The production of intermediate goods and services in some world regions decreased its dependence on embodied energy imports from the international construction industries. This study highlights the influence of the international trade in embodied energy on the development of the construction industry at the intermediate level. The outcomes provide considerable resources and references for policy adjustment and strategy design in the management of international trade for the construction sector.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Liu”,”given”:”Bin”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wang”,”given”:”Dedong”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Xu”,”given”:”Youquan”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Liu”,”given”:”Chunlu”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Luther”,”given”:”Mark”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Energy and Buildings”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”489-501″,”title”:”Embodied energy consumption of the construction industry and its international trade using multi-regional input–output analysis”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”173″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=268d4903-10fd-4666-8fa5-fa6f2810529d”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Liu <i>et al.</i>, 2018)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Liu, Wang, Xu, Liu, Chunlu & Mark, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Liu et al., 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Liu <i>et al.</i>, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Liu, Wang, Xu, Liu, Chunlu ; Mark, 2018). Construction resources is significant for construction managers and contractors to be at ease with the procedures of leading to reviving the productivity of the laborers and the equipment in various skills. And also to obtain the predictable income from any kind of construction project in common, it was significant to have a best governing hand on the productivity components that contribute in the combined production arrangement, like cash flow, equipment, labor, etc. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.aej.2012.02.001″,”ISBN”:”1110-0168″,”ISSN”:”11100168″,”abstract”:”Proper management of resources in construction projects can yield substantial savings in time and cost. As construction is a labor-intensive industry, this paper focuses on labor productivity in the construction industry. This study considers the current state-of-the-art issues relevant to this subject. It covers the construction labor productivity definitions, aspects, measurements, factors affecting it, different techniques used for measuring it and modeling techniques. The main outcome from the literature is that there is no standard definition of productivity. This study provides a guide for necessary steps required to improve construction labor productivity and consequently, the project performance. It can help improve the overall performance of construction projects through the implementation of the concept of benchmarks. Also, it gives an up to date concept of loss of productivity measurement for construction productivity claims. Two major case studies, from the literature, are presented to show construction labor productivity rates, factors affecting construction labor productivity and how to improve it. © 2011 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Shehata”,”given”:”Mostafa E.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”El-Gohary”,”given”:”Khaled M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Alexandria Engineering Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2011″,”12″},”page”:”321-330″,”title”:”Towards improving construction labor productivity and projects’ performance”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”50″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=161c9ac4-9862-43f3-b33b-c6469eddef29″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Shehata & El-Gohary, 2011)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Shehata & El-Gohary, 2011)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Shehata & El-Gohary, 2011)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Shehata ; El-Gohary, 2011).

1.2.Problem statement
According to the researchers, the main problem challenged by in construction industry is a mismatch between the introduction of modern new technology, an ability of the industry to benefit, use, absorb ; to apply it to the production stage. Therefore, there are several kind of factors manipulating the capacity of construction companies to absorb the modern new technology and knowledge available. According to base on the meaning of engaging capacity, it consist of the capability to understand, learn, acquire and make use of first-hand resources, with fresh technologies to improve performance ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1108/17260531211241176″,”ISBN”:”1726053121″,”ISSN”:”1726-0531″,”PMID”:”42012058″,”abstract”:”Purpose – The construction industry is a very important part of the Malaysian economy. The government’s aim is to make the industry more productive, efficient and safe. Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are at the core of the Malaysian construction industry and account for about 90 per cent of companies undertaking construction work. One of the main challenges faced by the Malaysian construction industry is the ability to absorb new knowledge and technology and to implement it in the construction phase. The purpose of this paper is to consider absorptive capacity in Malaysian construction SMEs in rural areas. Design/methodology/approach – The research was conducted in three stages: first, understanding the Malaysian construction industry; second, a literature review on the issues related to absorptive capacity and discussions with the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB); and third, multiple case studies in five construction SMEs operating in a rural area to validate the factors influencing absorptive capacity. Findings – Nine key factors were identified influencing absorptive capacity in Malaysian construction SMEs operating in rural areas. These factors involved: cost and affordability; availability and supply; demand; infrastructure; policies and regulations; labour readiness; workforce attitude and motivation; communication and sources of new knowledge and; culture. Originality/value – Thekey factors influencing absorptive capacity presented in this paper are based on validation from the case studies in five construction SMEs in Malaysia. The research focuses on how they operate in rural areas; however, the research results have wider application than just Malaysia. The key factors identified as influencing absorptive capacity can serve as a basis for considering knowledge absorption in the wider context by SMEs in other developing countries.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mustafa Kamal”,”given”:”Ernawati”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Flanagan”,”given”:”Roger”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″,”7″,”6″},”page”:”180-198″,”title”:”Understanding absorptive capacity in Malaysian small and medium sized (SME) construction companies”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”10″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=82cc823b-4fb8-4909-82a8-fe1bdd6ba96c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mustafa Kamal & Flanagan, 2012)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Mustafa, Kamal & Flanagan, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mustafa Kamal & Flanagan, 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mustafa Kamal & Flanagan, 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mustafa, Kamal ; Flanagan, 2012). Site workers are carry out up to 40% the straight forward to capital cost of massive construction projects also they are help to maximize the efficiency of labor resources ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/S0263-7863(03)00061-9″,”ISBN”:”0263-7863″,”ISSN”:”02637863″,”abstract”:”Workers on civil engineering projects are frequently confronted with problems that could lead to demotivation. Demotivation is caused not simply by a lack of motivators but the existence of certain situations that cause dissatisfaction and discourage individuals from pursuing desired goals. Workers who are inadequately motivated tend to make only a minimal effort, therefore reducing overall productivity potential. It is believed that removing certain demotivators will increase motivation without necessitating the addition of motivators. This paper aims to improve worker productivity by identifying factors that are likely to induce the demotivation of workers. Predominant demotivators and their effects on the productivity of workers in civil engineering projects are identified through an empirical survey in Hong Kong. Time losses due to demotivation were found to be as much as 13.6 man-hours/week, with material availability, overcrowded work areas and rework being the most significant demotivators involved. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd and IPMA. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ng”,”given”:”S. Thomas”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Skitmore”,”given”:”R. Martin”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lam”,”given”:”Ka Chi”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Poon”,”given”:”Anthony W.C.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Project Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″,”2″},”page”:”139-146″,”title”:”Demotivating factors influencing the productivity of civil engineering projects”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”22″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=58dca253-ddee-4ec1-a91d-a564c890c98a”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Ng <i>et al.</i>, 2004)”,”manualFormatting”:”( Ng, Skitmore, Lam, Poon & Anthony , 2004)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Ng et al., 2004)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Ng <i>et al.</i>, 2004)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}( Ng, Skitmore, Lam, Poon ; Anthony , 2004). Labor costs usually account for about 30-50% of the total project costs and labor is considered the strategic resource in any project for ensuring improved productivity and industry competitiveness. By effectively managing labor, the productivity of all the other inputs can be simultaneously enhanced and all of the benefits available through improved productivity can be realized. Therefore, Crew formation is one of the key tasks in labor management. The process of selecting the workers in a crew and assigning crews to different tasks is crucial for ensuring the success of a construction project and improved labor productivity ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.590″,”ISSN”:”18777058″,”abstract”:”Labor productivity has a profound impact on construction management. The accurate prediction of productivity is essential to effectively plan operations that depend on time and cost and is critical for the success of a construction project for both the contractor and the owner. However, predicting productivity of operations is challenging due to the multiple characteristics of workers, the interrelationships between workers, and the site conditions that impact the performance of crews and affect project goals. This paper proposes a methodology to quantify the factors that affect productivity in masonry construction. We have considered three factors: compatibility, suitability, and craft. Standardized data-collection techniques are used to consolidate data from three masonry sites and mathematically define a productivity function that relates workers characteristics and crews with site conditions. The function, increasing in its arguments, determines the factors that most affect masonry productivity and the factor’s effects. The most interesting part is to be able to identify the convexity properties of this function because its theoretical interpretation will have implications on the impact of the superintendent’s decisions when forming crews. The proposed mathematical function can enable superintendents to better plan, schedule, and manage masonry crews.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Florez”,”given”:”Laura”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Cortissoz”,”given”:”Jean C.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Procedia Engineering”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”42-48″,”title”:”Defining a Mathematical Function for Labor Productivity in Masonry Construction: A Case Study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”164″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=fd50dd47-53aa-46fd-9a14-45d7c6f431f9″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Florez & Cortissoz, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Florez & Cortissoz, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Florez & Cortissoz, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Florez ; Cortissoz, 2016).
“YK World Technology” said that, in present construction technology developed and developing in several faces. These as follows; machinery, software, equipment, scientific methods etc. as an example, material mixing machines, computerize concrete badging plants, asphalt laying machines, cement rendering machines, trench excavating machines, new types of precast structures, new formwork methods and models, waterproofing techniques, in some equipment are import from abroad as well as equipment fixing labors are import with materials. Those all kind of techniques are used in foreign countries but somehow Sri Lankan context those techniques were poorly followed. At all are consider as together, technology adaptation of labor was very week ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“URL”:”https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUMXtOOW9bM”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Technology”,”given”:”YK World”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”youtube”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”title”:”latest smart Automatic Construction Building fastest work Modern Techniques Automatic machines”,”type”:”webpage”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e1a98a00-d26f-472c-b943-10e43fbcf4cf”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Technology, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Technology, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Technology, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Technology, 2017).

1.3.AimThe compatibility of adopting labor skills for current / modern technology in Sri Lankan construction industry was not up to requirement. Therefore, we need to find the solutions for that problem
1.4.ObjectivesTo identify Project complexity
According to researchers, complexity is one of serious project features that control appropriate actions to effect in successful project results, with construction projects always showing higher levels of complexity since several decades. Many other researchers are supported to view that project success was depend on complexity of the project and direct effect on overall of project performance. The project complexity was the measure of difficulties and barriers of execution of construction project activities or project.
To identify Technology adoption
Now a day’s adoption of technology in varying according to social contexts. In all backgrounds of technology adoption, a modern technology must suitable with existing use infrastructures and, manufacturing meet supposed needs. Respectively of these fundamentals presents different of barriers to adoption in various particularly international, cultural backgrounds. In technically efficient technology that disturbs important social developments or depend on uncommon resources will not adopted.
To identify Shortage of qualified workers
The impact of the labor shortage in construction has continuously to disturb the construction industry since the last decade. In current, many construction workers are leaving in the construction industry. I the construction industry has faced a big trouble. Because it has a huge labor shortage issue, if some how many labors are leaving the construction industry. so the industry was struggled to fulfilled that issue, as well as they are try to found alternative solutions to cover the void. In according to the growth of new construction project activities, construction firms are going to be a challenge to find the qualified workers and staff for large-scale projects.

To proper suitable approach to improve Skilled Labor for SL requirement.

In present, Sri Lankan labor force are decrease with time to time. Now a day’s lack of labor force are the main problem in Sri Lankan construction. According to that reason, foreign labors are works in our country. This was not good for our economy. So Sri Lankan labor force must involve in construction industry also the government involvement is must ensure for their job security.

1.5.Scope and LimitationsIn this research was considered to identify the Technology adopting the current modern construction industry in Sri Lanka.
Focus only for, semi-skill and un-skill labors.

Only based on building projects.

1.6.Chapter breakdown
Chapter What are we expected How to achieve
01 Overview of Background Review the ground through research findings
Problem statement Identifying the research problem.

Aim Select what I was going to do through my research
Objectives Separate the main Aim to sub objectives. It was easy to analysis and achieve the core of the problem
Scope and Limitations Narrow down the research area and research was strict limit some boundaries
Chapter breakdown It was show the summary of research structure
02 Literature review Literature review was subcategorize under several stages and elaborate those through the research findings.
03 Methodology How we going to be research conduct
04 Analysis Data analysis
05 Conclusion and recommendation To gain final outcome

2.LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.Identify the Complexity of Project
The complexity of the construction project has important effects on many aspects of project outcomes. Many empirical revisions in the construction industry reflect that project complexity would dominate the project time, quality, and cost ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/S0263-7863(96)00039-7″,”ISBN”:”0263-7863″,”ISSN”:”02637863″,”PMID”:”218675374″,”abstract”:”This paper presents the results of a survey undertaken to determine and evaluate the relative importance of the significant factors causing delays in Hong Kong construction projects. The survey covered 83 previously identified delay factors, which were grouped into eight major categories. The main reasons for delays were analyzed and ranked according to different groups classified on the basis of (a) the role of the parties in the local construction industry (i.e. whether clients, consultants or contractors) and (b) the type of projects. Results indicate that the five principal and common causes of delays are: ‘poor site management and supervision’, ‘unforeseen ground conditions’, ‘low speed of decision making involving all project teams’, ‘client-initiated variations’ and ‘necessary variations of works’. Differing perceptions as to the principal causes delaying projects are observed between Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia and Nigeria, the two latter countries being chosen for purposes of comparison with other countries. It is hoped that the significant delay factors identified in this survey will provide a basis for strategies to minimize delays and will also be incorporated into a ‘construction time’ forecasting model for Hong Kong construction projects in the future research programme. Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd and IPMA.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Chan”,”given”:”Daniel W.M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kumaraswamy”,”given”:”Mohan M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Project Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1997″},”page”:”55-63″,”title”:”A comparative study of causes of time overruns in Hong Kong construction projects”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”15″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=611b5f0c-93d1-49e1-81c8-1423d13a66a3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Chan & Kumaraswamy, 1997)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Chan & Kumaraswamy, 1997″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Chan & Kumaraswamy, 1997)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Chan & Kumaraswamy, 1997)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Chan ; Kumaraswamy, 1997; ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1080/014461999371556″,”ISBN”:”01446193″,”ISSN”:”01446193″,”PMID”:”2190544″,”abstract”:”Construction time performance is provoking world-wide concern and discussion within the industry. This paper reports the results of a survey in the fourth stage of an investigation seeking to identify a set of significant variables influencing construction durations of projects in Hong Kong, the stage addressing the formulation of standard norms for overall construction durations of public housing projects by modelling the primary work packages in the building process, namely piling, pile caps/raft, superstructure, E (the ?Harmony? series of block design having become popular for average quality public housing blocks in the 1990s, ranging from 30 to 40 storeys and containing about 16 residential units on each floor). These data were analysed through a series of multiple linear regression exercises that helped to establish the time prediction model. This model was then tested and validated using information from a further nine projects from the Housing Authority. Both the usefulness and shortcomings of the model are briefly presented and discussed. It is concluded that the model is applicable to the public housing industry in Hong Kong, and that the methodology used may be applied to develop similarly useful models in other subsectors, and in other countries.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Chan”,”given”:”Daniel W.M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kumaraswamy”,”given”:”Mohan M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Construction Management and Economics”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1999″,”5″},”page”:”351-362″,”title”:”Modelling and predicting construction durations in Hong Kong public housing”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”17″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=039d7391-7044-425a-acb7-cee781095529″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Chan & Kumaraswamy, 1999)”,”manualFormatting”:”Chan & Kumaraswamy, 1999)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Chan & Kumaraswamy, 1999)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Chan & Kumaraswamy, 1999)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}Chan ; Kumaraswamy, 1999). It has been broadly acknowledged that the project complexity ought to be impartially measured in arrange to supply persistent feedback to support and control the method of project development ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2006)132:6(554)”,”ISBN”:”0733-9364()132:6L.554;1″,”ISSN”:”0733-9364″,”abstract”:”Several factors contribute to the complexity of project schedules, including the number of activities, the level of detail, and the shape of the project network. This paper presents a measure that assesses the complexity of project schedules in terms of the connectivity of the activities. Unlike similar complexity measures, the proposed complexity measure does not consider redundant relationships in the project’s schedule. In addition, the measure is expressed as a percentage and therefore has the advantage of being intuitively understand by project managers. The measure considers the degree of interrelationships between the activities in the project’s schedule. The measure has been implemented in a computerized tool to help managers assess the complexity of their projects. The tool is developed as an add-in to popular commercial scheduling software like MS Project. &copy; ASCE.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Nassar”,”given”:”Khaled M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hegab”,”given”:”Mohamed Y.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Construction Engineering and Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”6″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″,”6″},”page”:”554-561″,”title”:”Developing a Complexity Measure for Project Schedules”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”132″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d4c2350e-a81f-4435-b394-d209b9e2d0fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Nassar & Hegab, 2006)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Nassar & Hegab, 2006 ; “,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Nassar & Hegab, 2006)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Nassar & Hegab, 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Nassar ; Hegab, 2006 ; ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1080/10429247.2017.1309632″,”ISSN”:”10429247″,”abstract”:”Growing complexity is one of the main reasons behind the failure of many projects. Thus, identifying and measuring complexity is crucial to the success of any project. Various schedule complexity indices have been proposed in the past, but a comprehensive complexity measurement tool encompassing factors of schedule along with other important project constraints, such as time and scope, is still missing. First, a theoretical framework consisting of 46 complexity factors has been developed through literature review followed by its refinement through a three-round Delphi study. The complexity factors are categorized into three categories, namely, Schedule complexity, Scope complexity and Cost/Resource complexity. The Project Execution Complexity Index (PECI) tool is proposed, followed by development of a questionnaire in order to compute PECI values and validated using three infrastructure development projects during the planning phase. Finally, in the execution phase, the performance of the projects is measured through earned value analysis. PECI values are then mapped with project performance indices (i.e., schedule/cost performance index) in order to assess the effect of project complexity on the performance of projects. The results showed that projects with higher complexity tend to have larger cost or schedule overruns. These case projects are also ranked according to the degree of their complexity on the complexity scale. This ranking can help decision makers to decide which projects should be included in the portfolio and which projects need prioritizing through assigning resources more efficiently. The proposed PECI tool may also help project managers to better anticipate prospective difficulties during the initial stages of the project lifecycle.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mirza”,”given”:”Ebtisam”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ehsan”,”given”:”Nadeem”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”EMJ – Engineering Management Journal”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”108-123″,”title”:”Quantification of Project Execution Complexity and its Effect on Performance of Infrastructure Development Projects”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”29″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=95c22af0-2eba-4127-a33a-948cffa9b2e9″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mirza & Ehsan, 2017)”,”manualFormatting”:”Mirza & Ehsan, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mirza & Ehsan, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mirza & Ehsan, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}Mirza ; Ehsan, 2017). One of the imperative qualities of the complexity of the project organize is the network or the inter-dependency between the activities within the project. Clearly, the more interdependence between the activities within the project, the more connections between the project’s activities and thus the more complex the project plan will be. The shape of the extend network as it relates to the number of basic exercises and basic paths is additionally another angle of project complexity. Existing measures of venture arrange complexity have all been drawn closer and characterized in an unexpected way.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2006)132:6(554)”,”ISBN”:”0733-9364()132:6L.554;1″,”ISSN”:”0733-9364″,”abstract”:”Several factors contribute to the complexity of project schedules, including the number of activities, the level of detail, and the shape of the project network. This paper presents a measure that assesses the complexity of project schedules in terms of the connectivity of the activities. Unlike similar complexity measures, the proposed complexity measure does not consider redundant relationships in the project’s schedule. In addition, the measure is expressed as a percentage and therefore has the advantage of being intuitively understand by project managers. The measure considers the degree of interrelationships between the activities in the project’s schedule. The measure has been implemented in a computerized tool to help managers assess the complexity of their projects. The tool is developed as an add-in to popular commercial scheduling software like MS Project. &copy; ASCE.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Nassar”,”given”:”Khaled M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hegab”,”given”:”Mohamed Y.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Construction Engineering and Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”6″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″,”6″},”page”:”554-561″,”title”:”Developing a Complexity Measure for Project Schedules”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”132″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d4c2350e-a81f-4435-b394-d209b9e2d0fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Nassar & Hegab, 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Nassar & Hegab, 2006)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Nassar & Hegab, 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Nassar & Hegab, 2006).

In spite of the fact that the significance of extend complexity to project administration has been broadly recognized, few in the event that not none objective measures are accessible for surveying extend of complexity. This can be basically, since the complexity is generally associated to the subjectivity of the eyewitness ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/S0263-7863(98)00047-7″,”ISBN”:”02637863″,”ISSN”:”02637863″,”PMID”:”302″,”abstract”:”This is a version of a paper which formed the opening session of a workshop on managing and modelling complex projects. In order to introduce the theme, it discusses what constitutes project complexity. It aims to be inclusive rather than exclusive. Highlighted are structural complexity, the number and interdependence of elements (following a paper by Baccarini) and uncertainty in goals and means (following a paper by Turner and Cochrane). The paper considers whether these aspects can be operationalised. It gives some ideas about why project complexity might be considered to be increasing, in particular the increasing complexity of products being developed, and moves towards shorter timescales. Finally, it notes some areas where new methods are needed.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Williams”,”given”:”T.M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Project Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”5″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1999″},”page”:”269-273″,”title”:”The need for new paradigms for complex projects”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”17″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7df33e19-ed30-4738-a2f5-1ea5d4f6a1c2″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Williams, 1999)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Williams, 1999)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Williams, 1999)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Williams, 1999). The estimation of building complexity will vary among clients, project managers, architects and development managers. Pointed out that an objective device to supply a quantitative scale to degree the complexity of building ventures is direly required.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.4172/2168-9717.1000e111″,”ISSN”:”21689717″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ochieng”,”given”:”Edward”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hughes”,”given”:”Lauren”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”01″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”title”:”Managing Project Complexity in Construction Projects: The way Forward”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”02″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=512ede47-5dbd-4068-8a83-d0034d9a5c18″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Ochieng & Hughes, 2013)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Ochieng & Hughes, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Ochieng & Hughes, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Ochieng & Hughes, 2013). In any case, sometime recently building up a clear definition of the complexity, it is exceptionally troublesome to get complexity measures for building projects. Usually since, the concept of complexity, on the one hand, can be determined and utilized within the hypothetical setting of complexity hypothesis. The complexity theory is bother with the behavior over time of certain sorts of complex frameworks. The frameworks are persistently, unsteady, and frequently changing and advancing in an irregular mold. In the event that the complexity of building projects is assign to as the behavior of complex arrange within the complexity hypothesis , at that point the unusual and rising nature of such organize would block the application of any direct and reductionist approach that are customarily received ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1108/09699981211192544″,”ISBN”:”09699988″,”ISSN”:”09699988″,”abstract”:”Purpose – The aim of this study is to identify complexity measures for building projects in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Design/methodology/ approach – A three-round of Delphi questionnaire survey was conducted to identify the key parameters that measure the degree of project complexity. A complexity index (CI) was developed based on the identified measures and their relative importance. Findings – Six key measures of project complexity have been identified, namely: building structure amp; function; construction method; the urgency of the project schedule; project size/scale; geological condition; and neighboring environment. Practical implications – These complexity measures help stakeholders assess degrees of project complexity and better manage the potential risks that might be induced to different levels of project complexity. Originality/value – The findings provide insightful perspectives to define and understand project complexity. For stakeholders, understanding and addressing the complexity help to improve project planning and implementation. Copyright 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Xia”,”given”:”Bo”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Chan”,”given”:”Albert P.C.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″,”1″,”6″},”page”:”7-24″,”title”:”Measuring complexity for building projects: A Delphi study”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”19″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2fe97855-f9ec-4472-8e63-7ce5f80b527a”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Xia ; Chan, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Xia ; Chan, 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Xia ; Chan, 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Xia & Chan, 2012).
Within the construction development field, there have been a few endeavors to degree the complexity of development ventures. Nevertheless, given the truth that extend complexity is difficult to be measured absolutely, numerous analysts center on recognizing factors/aspects relating to the extend complexity ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Gidado, K.I. and Millar”,”given”:”A.J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”the 8th Annual Conference, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, Isle of Man.September”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1992″},”page”:”307-317″,”title”:”The effect of simple overlap of stages of building construction on the project complexity and contract time”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4b660436-0f83-4a3b-8bab-4eac31d06db5″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Gidado, K.I. and Millar, 1992)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Gidado ; Millar, 1992)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Gidado, K.I. and Millar, 1992)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Gidado, K.I. and Millar, 1992)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Gidado & Millar, 1992).
According toADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Gidado, K.I. and Millar”,”given”:”A.J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”the 8th Annual Conference, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, Isle of Man.September”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1992″},”page”:”307-317″,”title”:”The effect of simple overlap of stages of building construction on the project complexity and contract time”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4b660436-0f83-4a3b-8bab-4eac31d06db5″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Gidado, K.I. and Millar, 1992)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Gidado ; Millar, 1992)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Gidado, K.I. and Millar, 1992)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Gidado, K.I. and Millar, 1992)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Gidado & Millar, 1992), project complexity described as follows;
Technical complexity of task
Amount of overlap and interdependencies in construction stages;
Unpredictability of work on site.
Site layout; &
Organization of Project
According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1080/014461996373476″,”ISBN”:”0144-6193 % June 04, 2010″,”ISSN”:”01446193″,”PMID”:”6423966″,”abstract”:”Construction production planning is a paramount preoccupation of contractors and the process is rapidly increasing in dificulty with a continuous loss in confidence by clients. Today, one of the dificult issues facing practitioners in planning is that of a continuous increase in the complexity of construction projects. There seems to be no available tool or technique for assessing project complexity; consequently practitioners tend to neglect or subjectively assume its effect on project managerial objectives. This paper proposes an approach that measures the complexity of the production process in construction. The approach enables the construction practitioner to focus his or her attention on the issue of project complexity from the beginning through to the end of a project. By using a literature search and structured interviewing of practitioners, the paper has defined project complexity and identified the factors that in¯ uence its effect on project success in relation to estimated production time and cost.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Gidado”,”given”:”K. I.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Construction Management and Economics”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1996″},”page”:”213-225″,”title”:”Project complexity: The focal point of construction production planning”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”14″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d031485c-7a11-4862-a1f3-b8c56ee167b2″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Gidado, 1996)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Gidado, 1996)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Gidado, 1996)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Gidado, 1996) identified the aspects of project complexity, includes;
The interaction of different parts in the workflow.

The level of scientific and technological knowledge required
The environment
The employed resources and,
The number of different parts in the work flow
According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5353/th_b3123658″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Chan”,”given”:”Wai-ming”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1998″},”publisher”:”The University of Hong Kong”,”publisher-place”:”Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR”,”title”:”Modelling construction durations for public housing projects in Hong Kong”,”type”:”thesis”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0a77a08a-68bd-4121-be06-7bdea9494f80″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Chan, 1998)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Chan, 1998)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Chan, 1998)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Chan, 1998), put forward five casual factors of project complexity:
Client’s attributes;
Quality management;
Buildability of project design;
Site condition/site access problems; and
Quality of design coordination;
According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1080/014461900370979″,”ISBN”:”0144-6193″,”ISSN”:”01446193″,”abstract”:”Although extensive research has been undertaken on factors influencing the decision to tender and mark-up and tender price determination for construction projects, very little of this research contains information appropriate to the factors involved in costing construction projects. The object of this study was to gain an understanding of the factors influencing contractors’ cost estimating practice. This was achieved through a comparative study of eighty-four UK contractors classified into four categories, namely, very small, small, medium and large firms. The initial analysis of the 24 factors considered in the study shows that the main factors relevant to cost estimating practice are complexity of the project, scale and scope of construction, market conditions, method of construction, site constraints, client’s financial position, buildability and location of the project. Analysis of variance, which tests the null hypothesis that the opinions of the four categories of companies are not significantly different, shows that except for the procurement route and contractual arrangement factor there is no difference of opinion, at the 5% significance level, on the factors influencing cost estimating. Further analysis, based on a factor analysis technique, shows that the variables could be grouped into seven factors; the most important factor grouping being project complexity followed by technological requirements, project information, project team requirement, contract requirement, project duration and, finally, market requirement.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Akintoye”,”given”:”Akintola”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Construction Management and Economics”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2000″,”1″},”page”:”77-89″,”title”:”Analysis of factors influencing project cost estimating practice”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”18″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6dae089e-e568-4d42-a1bd-37217c3d88ac”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Akintoye, 2000)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Akintoye, 2000)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Akintoye, 2000)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Akintoye, 2000) describes, the project complexity is made up of following principle components.

Expected project organization;
Type of structure;
Site constraints;
Method of construction and construction techniques;
Scale and scope of the project; and
Complexity of design and construction.

According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Cicmil, S. ; Marshall”,”given”:”D.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Building Research ;Information”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”6″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2005″},”page”:”523-35″,”title”:”Insights into collaboration at the project level: complexity, social interaction and procurement mechanisms”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”33″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=06669c1b-655e-4ef4-9131-0b890ddf048f”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Cicmil, S. ; Marshall, 2005)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Cicmil, ; Marshall, 2005)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Cicmil, S. ; Marshall, 2005)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Cicmil, S. ; Marshall, 2005)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Cicmil, & Marshall, 2005) recommend three viewpoints of complexity in development ventures, which are:
Complex processes of communicative and power relating among project actors;
Ambiguity and equivocality related to project achievement criteria (success or failure) over time; &
The consequence of time flux (unpredictability, paradox and change the of control).

ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1080/17452007.2006.9684615″,”ISSN”:”1745-2007″,”abstract”:”This paper describes a framework that measures complexity within the various stages of a project, together with a measure of complexity for the complete project lifecycle in the form of a complexity index (CI). In essence, the framework provides the project manager with a tool that helps identify the possible manifestation of complexity within the project process and the ability to plan accordingly to minimize its impact. This framework was developed and evaluated based on engineering design projects. Initially, the paper provides an overview of the framework describing each of its component parts. An account of how the framework generates complexity measures is provided by means of an example. Case studies used for the evaluation of the framework are summarized.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sinha”,”given”:”Sanjeev”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kumar”,”given”:”Bimal”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Thomson”,”given”:”Avril”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Architectural Engineering and Design Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″,”1″,”6″},”page”:”187-202″,”title”:”Measuring Project Complexity: A Project Manager’s Tool”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”2″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=04e4f1eb-5cac-46d7-9ae0-3e486097e22c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Sinha, Kumar & Thomson, 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Sinha, Kumar & Thomson, 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Sinha, Kumar & Thomson, 2006) proposes the taking after three complexity-advocating variables, to be specific:
The workers;
Material; and
Tools used in carrying out the project activity.

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