Nanotechnology as a various applications on various fields such as textiles, fibers, electronics, agriculture, space, forensic science and medical therapeutics. Drug expenses and toxicity risks have been reduced by nanoparticles. Nanoparticles gives a profound control and release property and compatibility with biological nature of tissues and cells. The nanoparticles in vivo is characterized by morphological, molecular weight and surface chemistry. Surface modified nanoparticles have a properties of anti-adhesive. The method to prepare the nanoparticles are by solid, oil and water which gives an effective result on the size of the particles and reduces the efficiency of encapsulation up to 223-243 nm and 0.3-12% respectively. The nanoparticles yield may be varied by various method from 55% to 99%. By solvent evaporation technique the efficiency of encapsulation is higher of about 75% and they are observed by 5% target loading.
The structure and properties of the nanoparticles are being used as a powerful tool in fundamental studies and also in various disciplines. This diversity is been explored in various intended volume. Where the chemical syntheses had led to various form of nanoparticles by a controlled manner in size, shape, structure, composition and catalysis. The flexible formation of nanoparticles suggest the future modification can be accomplished that may allow the use of targeted molecular imaging contrast agent or therapeutic platform for multiple areas. It is a rapidly growing field which as infinite application in everything we do. The chemicals we use, food we eat, medicine we take and much more. The most probable use of nanotechnology is the drug delivery system for cancer cells by nanoparticles are under development stage, but also it doesn’t damage the healthy cells in the body.
In medicinal field nanotechnology plays a vital role in delivering a more specific drug. Where many substances are under investigation for drug production. The more interesting thing in pharmaceutical science is use of nanoparticles to reduce the side effect of the drug, were still now the carrier system themselves may cause risks to the patient. The hazards that are created by the nanoparticle drug are conventional hazards being imposed by it during delivery mechanisms. The knowledge on particle toxicity in nanoparticles are been got from inhalation toxicity that shows how to investigate the potential hazards in nanoparticles. According to the toxicology of particles the toxicology of substance differs by chemicals which may or may not dissolve in biological matrices. The nanoparticles situation differs when their size opens the potential of biological barriers within the body various. Including the nucleus nanosize will allow the access in cell and various cellular compartment.
The possibilities of the chemical composition are vast in engineered nanoparticles of polymer origin. Although the drug targeting solid nanoparticles have a strength to destroy the diseased site when the drugs are released in the body. The intention to formulate the biodegradable nanoparticle drugs is to make more effective. Based on the importance and the unique feature the nanoparticles is been chosen as alternative in medical field as their mass to surface ratio is much larger than the other particles and they carry other compounds along with quantum properties and the absorbance. The surface of the nanoparticles are large so that they can bind, absorb and carry compound such a drugs, probes and proteins. The application of nanotechnology is a challenging one which is been realized that there is anticipated improvement in understanding the pathophysiological basis of disease, so that they as more sophisticated diagnostic opportunities and an improved yield of therapies.
In drug delivery is not that only the engineered particles is to be used as a carrier , were drug itself can be formulated to a nanoscale and then they are function as the own carrier. The materials used may also can be a biological origin like phospholipids, lipids, dextran, chitosan, lactic acid and there also a various chemical characteristics such as different type of polymers, carbon, metals and silica. The biological compounds like phospholipids may have a quite different interaction when compared to that of non – biological compounds such as irons or cadmium. Despite many progress in design of disease targeted nanoparticles which have allowed new treatments to improve the specificity but only few nano based medicinal particles have reached the market. But the thing is currently available nanoparticle drugs are not improved the activity of greater number of drugs.
NANOPARTICLES AND DRUG PARTICLES
Nanoparticles vary in size from 10 nm to 1000 nm depending on the solid and colloidal particles consisting in macromolecular substance. Usually for a nanomedicine offers to a devices of 200 nm not been heavily used in drug particles. Depending upon the drug that is used it get dissolved, entrapped, absorbed, attached and encapsulated into or on a nanomatrix. The different preparation methods such as nanoparticles, nanosphere or nanocapsules can also be constructed which possess various properties and that can have a best characteristics for a delivery or an encapsulation of the therapeutic agents. It should be related to pharmaceutical development were the context of the nanomedicine is always viewed in science and the technology of nanometer scale complex system of about 10-1000 nm. The nanoparticle formulation drug are possible but there should at least be a one component which is a pharmaceutically active ingredient in it.
The novel nanosystem can be alter or pre-programmed while drug delivery process, that allow more effective extra and intra-cellular delivery of the encapsulate drugs. The molecular sensor are incorporated with physical and biological stimuli response which helps to change the pH, redox potential or enzymes. The nanocells of 400 nm are been packed with significant concentration of different chemotherapeutic charges, solubility and hydrophobicity. The nanocells target the receptors on cancer cell membranes by antibodies which results in endocytosis, intracellular degradation and drug release. The dose of nanocells are 1000 times less than the other free drugs of equivalent tumor regression. A conventional carriers of drug leads to a modification