For every independent variableFor every independent variable

For every independent variable, the first five minutes ensued a sharp rise in temperatures. During the next period of measurement, each material took their own path according to their insulation and absorption abilities from constantly reflected light rays.

The control variable made a sharp inclining and declining fluctuations for the next fifteen minutes of the trial as cardboard contains few concentrations of free electrons. The temperatures from 55 to 56 degrees fluctuate, as these declines and incline signifies the control variables ability to absorb at a steady rate. Aluminium foil’s capability to effectively reflect the light energy out of the pizza box played a large factor in forming the fluctuating results shown. This is shown when after the initial spike, the aluminium foil rose to 52 degrees and decreased to 50 degrees and ending in a plateau.

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Newspaper presented the steadiest temperatures and continued to increase gradually over the remaining fifteen minutes. This is because of newspaper’s insulation properties of free and widespread particles allowed it to insulate the heat efficiently. For the bubble wrap, a sharp decline in temperature after the initial spike was a clear representation of how light energy was transmitted and not absorbed, due to its lack of visible colour frequencies. Although environmental factors—such as the strong wind and weaker sun—may have affected overall results, they were not a major issue in this investigation.

The hypothesis: where if the material used is newspaper, then the average heat absorbed within the substance would justify its effectiveness to store a constant reflected heat, because its surface is not reflective, was confirmed in this experiment. Newspaper’s rising figures overtime conveyed newspaper’s ability to insulate well from a constant light source.

Errors that arose were measurement accuracies and unpredictable environmental conditions. During the experiment, a watch was used to measure the five-minute interval. The group members conversed often and as timers were not used, time measurements were often late. Additionally, when temperature readings were recorded, the thermometer was not removed then checked, in the case where heat could escape. The angle each group member viewed the thermometer from also resulted in possible variations. Environmental conditions may have jeopardised the material’s performance to not represent the best results in the given time; however, it did not make a large impact.

Improvements that could be made include the use of a timer, temperature probe and heat lamp, for errors in time intervals, inaccurate readings and unpredictable factors to be avoided. A constant light source of a heat lamp could be used to make this test as fair as possible. To extend, the experiment could be conducted with the insulation material exposed to sunlight then closed. The measurements are taken at time intervals to see how the insulation maintains heat over time. With these experiments, a conclusion could be made on which material is the best insulation and aspects of their ability to absorb and maintain a constant heat source.


The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate which material is most efficient in the insulation of a pizza box and absorption of heat energy from sunlight. The hypothesis was supported—where if the material used is newspaper, then the average heat absorbed within the substance would justify its effectiveness in storing reflected heat over a period, because its surface is not reflective, compared to aluminium foil. The outcome of the investigation was precedented and the highest rate of change was newspaper at 0.95° per minute and the worst performing was aluminium foil at 0.55° per minute. For future experiments, careful planning and focussed testing is recommended to minimise errors and improve accuracy.