Examining Product and External Factors Affecting the Satisfaction of Smartphone Towards IPK Student
Smartphones are the electronics industry in the fast-growing product, for most people, the diversity of its use has been considered important. The reason of this study is to evaluate the factors that influence customer satisfaction after purchasing the product. The study used a quantitative approach to investigate in the IPK College Machang Bubok, Bukit Mertajam with a total of 101 respondents which is Generation Y. This study used Correlation analysis, Multiple Regression analysis and Descriptive analysis. The results of this study support product judgment, product characteristics, social influence, brand image and country of origin and customer satisfaction are significantly correlated. At the same time, the most major factor affecting customer satisfaction is product judgment. The discussion of the findings will provide basic advice to local producers, academics and other stakeholders in the smartphone industry in Malaysia.
Brief introduction and problem statement
This research project is concentrating on global business following nowadays for particular products on the global market. Recently, development of the telecommunications industry, to manufacturing the new smartphone is acute. In order to make sure the business and profit are maintaining, in client retention is a critical aspect of the remnant of all performer in the related industry. In Malaysia, to producing smartphone are having a lot of trouble issue positioning their local brands and products in the minds of their customers. Besides, the local smartphone is considered a new brand which is not famous and fewer people will know compared to the foreign brands that already established locally. In the different era of handsets with a variety of design and features, currently, smartphone offering is almost functionally similar in equipped, in shape, running almost same operating system and so on. Manufacturers face the problem of knowing what the customer demands when they want to buy this particular product and what can fulfil the customer’s use and possession of the product.
In the past few years, Microsoft software smartphone was inefficient to lead the way in this industry given the fact that it has vast experiences in software authoring and computer industries. This is unexpected as Android smartphones keep on to dominate the global smartphone market with almost 85% market share in the second quarter of 2014 with excess than 255 million shipments. On the other hand, both Windows Phone and BlackBerry are behind iOS and Android devices. Every operating system provided by distinct manufacturers is a little different in price, speed, interface and multitasking. This difference may influence user’s satisfaction with different personal uses and demands. For example, younger generation and students like faster software to work on to fulfil the game’s needs. Therefore, providing different operating systems or features able influence with the user’s satisfaction with the product in some way.
Furthermore, brand image of smartphone embedded in every smartphone is recognized by the consumer as a producer’s approval. These assist customers identify and differentiate between judgment before and after purchasing. Customers are additionally depending on an item with regards to trust. The brand image of certain item likewise signifies economic wellbeing and acknowledgement among society. Because of this situation, a few customers incline toward one specific item finished the other because of the way that some of the smartphone brands flourish while leaving other brands falling behind. Customers were picked particular brand over the other.
In Malaysia, a smartphone with local brands is scarcely made due in their own particular market because of higher request on a smartphone with a built-up brand name. As indicated by BBC News, customers are ending up less brand-orientated and more price-sensitive in the created market and given the way that there are indications of market saturation in created advertise. In creating and rising economies, these business sectors demonstrate more strong development when contrasted with the created markets. In this manner, the confusion emerge here is to comprehend in the case of creating business sector, for example, Malaysia is judging smartphone due to the item and outside variables for acquiring their items.
Additionally, companies know about the need to keep up the brand’s reputation and corporate image in picking up customers believe in which consequently pulling in potential customers or holding existing purchasers towards purchasing their items. Past examination survey the significance of corporate reputation on the customer aim to purchase the items. As per Rosenthal and Landau (1979) and Kreps and Wilson (1980), the history of previous activities done by organization make known a company’s reputation.
When buyers making purchases also will considering the country of source. They will depend on which country creates an item when the item is including highly complex machine to deliver or a country’s good reputation for a certain item to be known. Nation of sources represents a nation in which a producer is being found. For this situation, local smartphone maker in Malaysia is not really offering their smartphone because of the way that electronic brand begins in Malaysia is seen by shopper as less settled and short of experience contrasted with a smartphone from created countries to deliver the electronic item. This factor could influence the level of fulfilment of customers.
Instead, the greater part of Malaysians employs their smartphone to surf the internet in city area which is 74 percent however 20 percent in the suburban area. But in the rural area, it is the lowest rate because smartphone users who surf the internet with only 6 percent of the population. Most of the users in this group, the greater part of smartphone users is age from 25 years old to 34 years old as that already covers 41 percent in the generation which known as is Generation Y.
And according to (Ibr13), Perlis, a city in northern Malaysia, is reported to have the lowest number of smartphone users in all states. In the point of view of consumers in the North region on what products and external factors in smartphones are a major factor affecting their satisfaction. As a result, understanding these market trend able assist Malaysian smartphones makers for example Committed Service Loyalty (CSL) and Ninetology in order understand their markets based on customer smartphone trends and needs.
So as to respond to the research question and also reply the answer research questions, this specific research is aimed to survey the key factors that affect consumers’ satisfaction with using the smartphone. So that, the research objective is at following:
• Investigating what factors between product and external factors have a greater impact on IPK student satisfaction with using smartphones.
• Analyze the impact of production factors on the satisfaction of the IPK student.
• Investigate the impact of external factors on the satisfaction of the IPK student.
These research aims to analyze the factors that affect customer satisfaction of smartphone users between Generation Y in IPK College. The following research questions depend on the problems previously discussed in the research problem of the present research. This question is to find out the real factors that affect consumers’ purchase of smartphones in IPK College. The research questions which is:
•What factors are more influential in meeting satisfaction of customer?
• What is the impact of production factors on customer satisfaction?
• What is the impact of external factors on smartphone consumers?
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
According to (Statista, 2015), mobile devices become more popularity in global society since 2007. Based on the data given, the users of the smartphone were increased in 2014, which is from 122.32 million to 1,244.89 million. The reason that attract consumer become the smartphone users is because it has multipurpose and equipped such as camera, voice recorder, video and music player, radio, calculator, clock, games, maps, internet browser and more. Also, producers are able to expanding their mobile devices capacity and increasing various to existing products since technology and engineering is advancement. The users can buy the smartphone in variety countries because it comes with preference languages in order to fit each country. Therefore, the smartphone usage was increase day to day.
Moreover, advertising campaigns in mass media such as newspapers and Internet also is one of the factor that to expansion of smartphone worldwide. There are many familiar brands which are associated with the smartphone such as Samsung, Sony, Apple, Nokia and more. Since there are many brands, the consumer has many choices to choose when they are interest to purchase mobile devices. The more competitor, the more competing fiercely. So, the producer wants the consumer choose their products, they will consider about the satisfaction of the consumer from various factors. In the nutshell, overview of satisfaction in purchasing and what are the factors influencing customer satisfaction towards purchasing activities is the topic that discuss in this section. In section 2.3.1, discuss the theory of purchase behavior related to this topic. The concept of the research was obtained from previous researches and it will discuss in several sections. Country of origin, product features, brand image, product judgment, social influence and customer satisfaction will be discussed in section 2.4 until 2.10. In section 2.12, summary will be show.
2.2 Smartphone Industry in Malaysia
According to (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2015), Malaysia increased 10 million of resident since 1991. In the year of 2010, Malaysia consists of 28.3 million of resident. Selangor, Johor and Sabah are the most populous states in Malaysia, which are total share of 42.2 percent of total population. Every year, new brands of smartphone are being introduced, therefore, Malaysia population are increasing also won’t make the market become insufficient. Demand of smartphone will be affected by smartphone producers as producers can slow down the production.
At the beginning, the first cellular network was introduced in 1985 by Telekom Malaysia. It is the first mobile phone industry in Malaysia and it also is a telecommunication service company. After 1989, Celcom, who is the operator, making the size of mobile phone become more small and acceptable. In 1990 and in 2005, Maxis and Digi, who are the cellular operator introduced 2G or second generation of mobile network. In year 2011, the users of smartphone only have 12 percent (Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission, 2012). However, in 2012, the number of users was increasing to 26 percent since it was supported by number of shipment. At the same year, smartphone usage had reached to 1 million units in the world.
Different brands of smartphone using different operating system because brand is closely related to the operating system. So, each brand provides a hint to application developer. For example, iPhone using Apple iOS and Samsung and HTC are using Android OS to operate. According to (Osman et al, 2012), Sony Ericsson, Apple iPhone, BlackBerry and HTC are the most popular brands in 2012. In the year 2014, Samsung, Apple iPhone, HTC, Sony and Nokia are leading the Malaysia market because most of consumers like bigger touch screen. In Malaysia, there are 35% of smartphone users use their smartphone for accessing the Internet. However, 28% of smartphone users use their smartphone do online shopping, 55% of users use to listening music, 50% of users use to playing online games and 67% of users use to watching online videos (Malaysian Wireless, 2014).
Smartphone in IPK College
Every student of the IPK College are the users of smartphone. Every student minimum has one smartphone. The brand that IPK student most love is Apple, follow by Samsung, Oppo and Vivo. The factor that IPK student like iPhone is because Apple iOS is better than Android OS. Even though Apple is expensive than others brand. Besides, the reason that IPK student like iPhone than other brand is they thought that Apple is a symbol of wealth. Some of student though that if they having an iPhone, means that they are rich and “high class” than other students. Most of IPK student will use their smartphone for accessing the Internet in order to search information for doing their assignment.
2.3 Theoretical Framework
Producers enabled to increase the type of existing product and widen their capacity production since the advances in technological and engineering. The trends of using smartphone is increasing because of the device has a versatile function and is equipped with voice recorders, clocks, cameras, game consoles, social media applications, notes, calculators, radio, maps, music players and video, Internet browsers and so on. The various countries of consumers are possible to obtain these devices since smartphone it is have preferred language to suit every specific country. Therefore, consumers have a lot of options when buying smartphones because the devices are produced by more than the brands of familiar which are related with devices. Brands come from developed country for instance Sony, Samsung, Apple are facing competition intensely and threats with the newer brands from China. Brands come from developed country for instance Sony, Samsung, Apple are facing competition intensely and threats with the newer brands from China and also will establishing their products close to the mind of the consumer by the other developing. Thence, customer satisfaction can be considered from an each of factors when purchase is made before and after. Lastly, this section discusses an overview of purchase satisfaction and factors that affect customer satisfaction with activity of purchasing. Study concept was get from previous studies and will divide into some sections.
2.3.1 Theory of Planned Behavior
Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as an extension, Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is able assist researcher in comprehend how to change people’s behavior by predicting deliberate behavior. And proposes that people’s control and power have incomplete for their intention which to lead to people’s behavior or action. The drivers of this intention include to the three elements of subjective norms, perceived behavior control and attitudes toward behavior. Intention of individual’s is to utilize or perform a certain product is the central factor of this theory. This intention catches the motivational element and becomes the driving force that people are willing to try and farther affect their behavior or perform some kind of action. Thus, the stronger the intention to engage in behavior, the more likely the performance should be. At certain extent, behavior to be implementing it is depends on several non-motivational factors, in which this factor provides the necessary opportunities and resources can be translated into time, money, other people’s cooperation and skills. So that, this non-motivational element represents the actual control of the individual’s intended behavior. Unless everyone has the resources and the opportunity, he or she cannot successfully perform the intended behavior.
Figure 2.3.1: Theory of Planned Behavior(TPB) (Replicate from: Faiz)
Perceived behavioral control in the distinction plays a major role in the theory of Planned Behavior to the Theory of Reasoned Action. This TPB is determinant that it can be defined as people’s perception of the easy or difficulty of their behavior. These perceived behavioral controls it will not be stable under all circumstances because it involves judging several opportunities for failing to achieve its objectives.
Next, determinant of intention is behavioral attitude it is this refers to the extent to which individuals question the behavior by favorable or unfavorable appraisals. The perceived social pressure to carry out or not to the behavior is an independent determinant of the third intention or is called subjective norms or social factors. And it is combines the expectations of groups and individuals.
The stronger of person’s intention to behave the behavior the more better and greater of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. These theories are consistent with recent research on customer intentions to be significantly predicted through the three proposed determinants in TPB by Ajzen it is Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control (Pickett et al, 2012). In addition, in order to be consistent with the TPB, the intent was found to be significant for predicting behavior so that the conclusion is that TPB is the most satisfactory predictor.
Link between intention and satisfaction
According to study by (Tuu, 2012), Customer satisfaction increases willingness to buy intention because of the higher perceived certainty as a third variable. In another study according to (Run, 2013), consumer buying intentions and behavioral intentions are influenced by promotional skills, demonstrating the relationship between willingness and satisfaction.
Link between TPB and satisfaction
Theory Planned Behavior (TPB) has used in past research relate a wide range of actual behaviors and behavioral intentions which is include the unsatisfactory response of customers in the restaurant. The result is shown in the TPB shown that it applies to the customer’s context dissatisfied response to high-end restaurants because the past behavior of the TPB model has a significant impact on the negative intention of word-of-mouth communication. Hence, affect of past behavior on behavioral intentions to engage in responses of dissatisfaction in this research using the variables of TPB as a mediator (Cheng, S., Lam T., & Hsu, C. H., 2005).
2.4 Previously Related Researches on Customer Satisfaction
Satisfaction could be characterized as a believing a buyer experienced after the service utilized satisfied an individual’s desire. In a service part, client desire and service conveyed are contrasted with measure their encounters for the customer satisfaction.
Past investigations are concentrating on the both item and brands in connection to customer satisfaction took after by client faithfulness. There were concentrating on items at the primary spot and later took after by intangible advantage which is the brand name. The example investigated two unique classes of items, with electronic items expressing to inventive items while wine to express traditional items classification. With most research test for the most part express to purchasers of electronic items by 830 individuals and with a lesser of 393 purchasers are wine customers because of the primary item classification having more noteworthy assortment of brands and items in that portion. Conclusion was made where the customer loyalty and satisfaction could be accomplished distinctively based on the distinct phases of item improvement in the market beginning from introduction to develop organize. Satisfaction accomplished at the introduction organize isn’t high when contrasted with more develop arrange because of shortage of psychological advantages. Additionally, customer satisfaction changed because of item classes as the inventive items include strongly in innovation improvement coordinated by customer’s high cooperation not at all like traditional items which is lower.
Similar research has concentrated on understanding of the customer satisfaction crosswise over various item gatherings of three brands with slight contrasts in inquiring whether customers meet desire and consumers full of feeling state are special constructs that already put into utilization in the research. Both of the “meet desire” and “full of feeling state” are two runs of the mill points of view of consumers’ satisfaction about this research. Meet desire is to measures consumers’ assessments of item after utilization while emotional feeling state measures customer satisfaction.
The finding rated that the two points of view are two particular develops with every ha noteworthy effects on future repurchase conduct for all brand proposed in the research. Nonetheless, which point of view of customer satisfaction has more effect on repurchase conduct keep questionable and could be liable to additionally research.
(Sanzo, 2003) broke down the relationship among three variables, brand’s satisfaction, perceived quality of honey, and consumers’ attitudes, a customary agro-sustenance item in Spain. Attitude was being utilized as a part of the research because of powerful relationship between client attitudes and their behaviours while to relate it to fulfilment, attitude has direct connection with quality recognition and this attitude thusly can decide the level of satisfaction. This relationship exists caused by three segments existed in attitude; behavioural, cognitive and affective which can be referred to bonds or religion set up amongst object and attribute. State of mind, feelings and emotions comprise in the later part while the third segment comprises of activities. All things comprise in the three segments experienced by client in connection to the purchased object. The outcome uncovered quality measurement of honey does not appear to decide customer satisfaction. Nevertheless, honey’s quality demonstrates an indirect effect on customer satisfaction.
The research is essential to marketers in realizing that satisfaction of clients will not give any assurance to marketers about brand loyalty. There are constantly new items in the market and clients with less of the risks, higher assurance and high-knowledge group were reported for to have higher purchase of motive. However, Espejel in their research indicated more advance level of customers’ loyalty and purchase motive lead by higher fulfilment on food items.
2.5 Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is a measure amongst services and items provided by a company and customers’ desires which are often utilized as a part of marketing range. Clients will experience the services and items gave by producers.
A positive experience of item quality is the most essential factor in deciding satisfaction with mobile phone items other than the level of known as charges, the level of service chargers and satisfaction with the specialist organization. Other indicated easement in utilizing smartphone is the most imperative factor in deciding consumer satisfaction and took after by faster correspondence. Intricacy of smartphone devices is a negative factor for fulfilment and will hamper readiness to purchase smartphone devices.
(Kim, 2013) found that user’s intentions are driven by practical, hedonic and social energize user’s esteem and satisfaction. Functional motivation comprises of productivity and convenience while hedonic intention comprises of satisfaction and delight while social intention comprises of want to associate with others. Among the factors recorded, social intention, for example, wants to interface and share with others will impact users’ satisfaction which indeed prompts proceeded with engagement purpose with smartphone.
2.6 Country of Origin (COO) and Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfactions prompts behavioral client loyalty and are viewed to be more powerful factor when contrasted with item quality and focused priced to customers’ satisfaction (Cater, 2009). Customer satisfaction intervene the relationship between client loyalty and values in which customer satisfaction is influenced by two measurements of client loyalty, specifically suggestion and patronage (Lam et.al, 2004).
Apart from that, country of origin is related to a reputation of company which is identified with trust of clients which turns into an important social trade factor. Country of origin discernment upgrades the relationship amongst trust and satisfaction in term of more positive feeling clients have about certain foreign company, the more satisfaction influences trust (Nijssen, 2009). Other investigation by (Siringoringo, 2013), recommended that there is no immediate impact of satisfaction on trust for imported items especially electronic that contrasts in view of country of origin, for example, Chinese items.
Country of origin of a brand or country image is viewed as important to young customers for purchasing electronic items, for example, mobile phone and laptop since it is connected to their reasoning that items began from modern nations with heaps of experience produce higher quality electronic items and this can likewise be identified with the diverse level of mechanical advancement. Items with various level of contribution, for example, mobile phone (low involvement) a laptop (high involvement) isn’t everyday items to purchase. Therefore, they attempt to settle on proper choice when buying it and hoping to satisfaction themselves for uniqueness through knowing the brands that have a place which is popular, more developed countries, for example, Japan (Moradi, 2012).
H1: Country of origin is positively affecting Malaysian consumers’ satisfaction in using smartphone.
2.7 Product Features and Customer Satisfaction
Product features is a major competitive advantage to a product, product features are the important factor that affect customers to purchase. If the product has the special function that other competitor doesn’t have, so the product will have absolute advantage in the market. Adding features to product can strengthen the appeal of a product and increase competitive advantage (Glasscock, N. F. and Wogalter, M. S., 2006). Nowadays, smartphone become the things that necessary for every person. For instant, IPK student use smartphone to take note when having a class, search for some information or data and so on. If the product features can fulfill the customers demand, so that the customers will consider future to purchase with the same company. However, every customer has different requirement for the smartphone that they need to purchase but the most customers are care about the battery of the smartphone. Whether the battery is durable for how many hours even customer use for searching data or play game. It is because of the battery of the smartphone that on the market are not durable. If the customers use the smartphone for watch movie, the battery will run out as soon as possible.
H2: Product feature is positively affecting Malaysian consumers’ satisfaction in using smartphone
2.8 Brand Image and Customer Satisfaction
Brand image is how the consumers view on the brands. It can be defined as the esthesia of the brand of the consumers’ opinion. Consumers may based on their family, friends or their own experience to certified the brand image, brand image also will have developed by over time through the advertising event with a consistent theme. Corporate store image or brand image does affect consumer satisfaction and eventually leads to consumer loyalty (Martenson, 2007) .Brand image will represent the consumer’s satisfaction level and determine the consumer loyalty. While new consumer satisfaction is crucial to their initial experience with services or products, taking into account the lesser role of image in loyalty. If the new consumer satisfied for their initial experience, therefore the company will get another opportunity. Brand trust and satisfaction had an impact on the retailer’s willingness to buy, but the impact was adjusted by the client’s trust and customer satisfaction with the retailer. From the research it can be concluded that both manufacturers and retailers can benefit from strong brand names and manufacturers’ names when consumers are satisfied with the brands they sell. For instant, customers may refer their phone as iPhone or Samsung instead of the model of the phone (iPhone 8, iPhone 8s plus or Samsung edge 8, Samsung Galaxy 9s).
H3: Brand image is positively affecting Malaysian consumers’ satisfaction in using smartphone.
2.9 Product Judgment and Customer Satisfaction
Judgment or brand judgments are the customer’s personal opinion or the comment regard to the brand or product (Keller, 2011). Judgments on the quality of products in the informal sector lead to product purchases, but products in the informal sector are not satisfied with the appearance, finish and workmanship of the product. This is a product quality category with using different levels of technology are manufacture of the products involved. Based on the quality of product, (Ozcan, T. and Sheinin, A. D., 2012) make a research to know that how the consumer judge and understand the product based on multiple attributes and complete features.
H4: Product Judgment is positively affecting Malaysian consumers’ satisfaction in using smartphone.
2.10 Social Influences and Customer Satisfaction
Social influence is the extent to which an individual affects another individual and various social factor are analyzed to measure the social similarities, social centrality and trust relationships of individual members (Christensen, 2014). Social influence is including take the advantage of personal status, skills, fascination, access to material wealth and expertise. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are two elements that decided the performance of service companies in the industry. Company can maintain customer loyalty as customer satisfaction increase. The information element is when the consumer acquired the information that through observation and the specification element is when the consumer will only verify the purchase with others or impress others. The result show that the customer who are social influence and customer who actively seek information at the time of purchase have a lower tendency to buy and life satisfaction is related to the cognitive dimension of impulsive buying.
H5: Social influence is positively affecting Malaysian consumers’ satisfaction in using smartphone.
2.11 List of Hypotheses
Country of origin is positively affecting the Malaysian consumer satisfaction in using smartphone
Product feature is positively affecting the Malaysian consumer satisfaction in using smartphone
Brand image is positively affecting the Malaysian consumer satisfaction in using smartphone
Product Judgment is positively affecting the Malaysian consumer satisfaction in using smartphone
Social influence is positively affecting the Malaysian consumer satisfaction in using smartphone
2.12 Research Model/ Framework
Dependent Variable Independent Variable
Satisfaction Brand Image
H4 Country of Origin
H5 Social Influence
This chapter discussed about the theoretical and practical aspects that affect consumer or customer satisfaction. The variables listed in previous studies in this section are the main factors in addition to the changes made over a period of time of similar topics. Thence, this section is important to reveal the issue and provides guidelines to further clarify what factors will make the customers satisfaction in the smartphone industry. This section is intended to provide a clear understanding of previous concerning study and a better understanding of overall research.
CHATPER 3: METHODOLOGY
Methodology employed the study of factors affecting smartphone satisfaction is discussed in this chapter. There are discussed in seven sections. First and foremost, theoretical framework is constructed, followed by sample used for this study, research instrument and research design. For the purpose to achieve the research objective, the researcher explains the research approaches used to collect data and analyze the data. In the nutshell, the researcher also presents and explain the statistical method employed in this chapter.
3.2 Research Design
Research design is defined as a method for the purpose of collecting and analyzing the needed information. And it also defined as a master plan that specifies procedures (Zikmund, 2013). Besides that, the researcher used it used it as a guide in order to test the hypothesis of the data collection. During the early stages of this research, the objectives of the study determined was included in order to make sure that the collected information is appropriate for solving problems. Moreover, it is argued that there is no single best research design before this method was used in this research. In order to solve this argued and help to accomplish the stated objectives, the researcher able to choose several alternatives which are available to solve it problem.
3.3 Research Sample
The sampling procedure includes distinguishing and deciding the population for this research. The objective population of this research is people who live in the IPK College. This research will include all students in IPK College. Generation Y is depending on their most abnormal amount of contribution in tolerating smartphone contrasted with other older or younger groups in Malaysia. Research from (Morris, 2000), recommended that age contrasts is one of the elements that influences purpose to utilize a data system and application in technology.
3.3.1 Generation Y and Smartphone
This generation is reliant on their smartphone by currently utilizing different social networking sites and applications from chats to games as a much important of their day by day life (Roy, 2013). The components impacting Generation Y inclinations of smartphone instead of laptop is because of its convenience which is considered as lighter design and smarter and item includes ranging from camera resolution to speedier operating system (Fah, 2013). IPK College students are the substantial users of this device since the device is utilized to remain associated with friends along these reflecting the effortlessly utilization of this device. Social impact plays an imperative part in influencing students’ reliance on smartphone (Aslam, 2014). Smartphone turns out to be valuable when buying in general store by utilizing their phones while in stores to research and look at products’ costs on the web. Friends accessible in social media are being utilized as a source of perspective before making purchases (Pelet, 2014).
3.4 Data Collection Method
For to collect the data, send google form through social media such as we chat and facebook. Through this media social, total have 101 respondence to participant this study. Basically, this study employs survey which is known to be the most common method of generating primary data in business research (Zikmund, 2013). The questionnaire was allocation by emailed to each prospective respondent attach a cover letter explaining with respect the purpose and purpose of the study. For the normal allocation through hands, which is the respondents will explain regarding the goal of the research and expected response from each respondent.
3.5 Questionnaire Design
This questionnaire is replicate from Faiz Bin Masnan, in designing and managing the questionnaire, several steps have been taken to make sure the instrument that used in data collection method are related to the research objectives. The steps included in the design of the questionnaire are by search through the past literature to determine the most appropriate measurement structure for the research structure to increase the understanding of the project respondents. The questionnaire constitutes of two parts which is part A and part B. For part A, it consists of all five independent variables and one dependent variable, respondents are requiring to choose the best option to represents their experience depend on five-point Likert Scale given. Part B is asking for demographic information or the backgrounds of the respondents were largely used by the past researchers in their survey format and some are adapted to match the products presented in this study.
This chapter is shown ways to study the factors that influence the customer satisfaction of smartphones. The research employs simple random sampling so that the questionnaire was therefore allocation to Malaysian Citizens with the target which is especially to Generation Y, it is who study in IPK college in Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. This study is descriptive in nature and uses a questionnaire and survey method to conduct a detailed analysis.
CHAPTER 4: ANALYSE DATA
In this chapter, discuss the result of the study that has been conducted. Moreover, analyses the data and present of the result. This data analysis is presented by using the software Google Form. Total have 101 respondence to response this study. In product feature part, majority of IPK students use smartphone because of its functional software. Next, most of IPK student will base on reputation of brand before buying. In country of origin part, majority of IPK student will prefer the brand that originates from a country with remains a high level of quality.
Analysis the data
From demographic information, this study total has 101 responses. For the gender, female consist of 65.3% that only have 66 respondence, whereas, male consist of 34.7% that only have 35 respondence.
For the age, from these 101 responses, 20 years and below consist a large proportion, which is 82 respondence (81.2%), whereas 19 respondence (18.8%) are consist of 21-35 years.
In these 101 responses, the race in Chinese is the majority part in this result, it consists 96% (97 respondence). But, the race in Indian is the minority part which is only consist 4% (4 respondence). There are no any respondence is race in Malay and others.
In marital status, most of respondence are single, which is 98% (99 respondence). Only have 2% (2 respondence) are in other status. There are no any respondence is married.
For highest level of education, 97% respondence are hold in certification/ diploma level. There are only 2% (2 respondence) and 1% (1 respondence) are holding in bachelor degree and PhD level.
For occupation, student is the majority in this study, it consists 98% that have 99 respondence. Once, other consist of 2% that only have 2 respondence. There are no any respondence is the business owner.
For monthly income, below than RM900 consist of 92.1% that only have 93 respondence, RM1,000-RM2,000 consist of 6.9% that only have 7 respondence, RM2,100-RM3,000 consist of 1% that only have 1 respondence. There are no any respondence monthly income is more than RM3,000.
For the brand of smartphone, Apple consist of 19.8%, which have 20 respondence; Samsung consist of 16.8% that only have17 respondence; Oppo consist of 13.9%, which only have 14 respondence; Vivo consist of 12.9% that only have 13 respondence; Xiao Mi, Lenovo and Asus consist a same percentages, which is 7.9% that only have 8 respondence; Huawei consists of 6.9% that only have 7 respondence and other brand consist of 5.9% that only have 6 respondence.
For number of smartphone that respondence own, 1 unit consist of 75.2% that have 76 respondence. 2 units consist of 18.8% that only have 19 respondence. 3 units is consist of 4%, that only have 4 respondence. 4 units consist of 2% that only have 2 respondence. There are no any respondence have more than 5 units of smartphone.
For IPK student like their smartphone design, the most higher rate is agree, there have 46 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 19 respondence strongly agree with this question. The strongly disagree and disagree have the same rate of respondence, which is only have 2 respondence.
For IPK student smartphone has more Apps than basic hand phone, the most higher rate is agree, there have 46 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 15 respondence strongly agree with this question. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 1 respondence.
For IPK student smartphone provides high quality of games, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 43 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is disagree and strongly agree, there have 7 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 4 respondence.
For IPK student use smartphone because of its functional software, the most higher rate is agree, there have 52 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 21 respondence. The lower rate is disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For IPK student have internet accessibility is faster than basic hand phone, the most higher rate is agree, there have 45 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 14 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For brand image is an attraction for IPK to buy, the most higher rate is agree, there have 37 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 22 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 2 respondence.
For brand image improve IPK student social status, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 42 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 16 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 1 respondence.
For IPK student will base on reputation of brand before buying, the most higher rate is agree, there have 49 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 14 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For IPK student base on the brand image when purchasing a higher price product, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 41 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 21 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 1 respondence.
For brand name is IPK student first choice when making a buying decision, the most higher rate is agree, there have 39 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 12 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 4 respondence.
For smartphone of IPK student is carefully produced and has fine craft, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 51 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 10 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For smartphone of IPK student is generally of higher quality than likely products from other brands, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 46 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is disagree, there have 13 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 2 respondence.
For smartphone of IPK student shows a very high degree of technological development, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 40 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 10 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 5 respondence.
For smartphone of IPK student is quite trusty and seems to last the desired length of time, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 47 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree and disagree, there have 11 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 4 respondence.
For smartphone of IPK student is a best value for the money, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 42 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is disagree, there have 10 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 2 respondence.
For smartphone of IPK student shows a very clever use of color and design, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 42 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 11 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 1 respondence.
Country of Origin
For IPK student will prefer the brand that originates from a country rich in R;D, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 49 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is disagree, there have 10 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For IPK student will prefer the brand that originates from a country with a high level technological development, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 46 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 11 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 2 respondence.
For IPK student will prefer the brand that originates from a country which remains a high level of quality, the most higher rate is agree, there have 54 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 10 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 2 respondence.
For IPK student will prefer the brand that originates from a country which is prestigious in a way of smartphone manufacturing, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 39 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 14 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 1 respondence.
For IPK student will prefer the brand that originates from a country which remains an image of more new smartphone advancement, the most higher rate is agree, there have 46 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 11 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 1 respondence.
For IPK student very satisfied with the quality of smart phone, the most higher rate is agree, there have 40 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 13 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For IPK student satisfied with purchase of smartphone, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 45 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree and disagree, there have 5 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For IPK student very confident that made the correct decision, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 42 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 14 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For IPK student belief that they made right decision to purchase the smart phone, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 41 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 9 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For if IPK student have one more chance to choose, they would buy the same smartphone, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 35 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is disagree, there have 15 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 4 respondence.
For it is important that their friend like the brand of smartphone that IPK student using, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 41 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 12 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 4 respondence.
For the pressure from family and friend is likely influence the usage rate of smartphone, the most higher rate is agree, there have 41 respondence agree with this. The moderate rate is disagree, there have 10 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 2 respondence.
For IPK student would be easily persuaded into using smartphone if they had a low self-esteem, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 48 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 11 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 3 respondence.
For IPK student would purchase a smartphone if it helped they fit in with their social group better, the most higher rate is neutral, there have 48 respondence neutral with this. The moderate rate is strongly agree, there have 14 respondence. The lower rate is strongly disagree, there only have 2 respondence.
This analysis data is carry out on all dimensions shows bar chart result on factor influence IPK student satisfaction in using smartphone. The correlation analysis result for product features, brand image, product judgement, country of origin and social influence have relationship with IPK student satisfaction.
Chapter 5: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This will be a discussion section of this research on key determinants affecting satisfaction of customer in smartphone products. Implication of the study will be discussed at 5.2 and 5.2.2. Limitation of the study and suggestion for future research discuss in 5.3. Conclusion discuss at 5.4.
5.2 Implication of the Study
The significance of this research would be explained based on theoretical and managerial perspectives. In theoretically, this research provides customers with solutions that allow them to select products that satisfy them. From the perspective of the company, especially local companies, markets and departments able use the results of this research to further improve product performance and quality so as to meet or exceed customer satisfaction.
5.2.2 Managerial Implication
Consumer satisfaction is a key to effective business. It also not to notice that smartphone seller and procedures that reform the customers’ tastes, demands and needs into better quality items to satisfy customer’ desires. This research encourages new local makers to concentrate on customer’ wants and needs, other than by helping existing players to reinforce their market position in such quick changing, and competitive industry. As this research has recommended, clients will be fulfilled in items that reflects the producer’s nation and highly related it with any enhance in technology in the making of these items.
Apart from that, country of origin, products feature and brand image will likewise remain as factor in deciding customer satisfaction, which will be continue to repurchasing plan of similar brand. The current individual surrounding the clients likewise impact the way they propose and judge good items for their family and friends. Data spread among society causes clients to make a decision to purchase with the reason for getting high satisfaction.
5.3 Limitation of the Study and Suggestion for Future Research
There are a few limitations on this research in IPK College. First, people may have different interpretations of each question thus reply based on their own read differently of the question. For example, what is ‘agree’ to someone may be ‘disagree’ to someone else, thus there is an unacknowledged subjectivity level.
Second, although their advantage questionnaires lack the flexibility of the interview. In general, their response rate is low because respondents are not easy to respond. They only allow measurement of verbal behavior and do not allow researchers to observe it. In addition, mailing questionnaires allows respondents to skip questions.
Third, the limitation of the study is difficult to target different race respondence. Majority of the respondence in this study is Chinese. Malay and Indian only have 1 and 2 respondence. It is need multi culture respondence to join this study.
For suggestion, the present research mainly focus on marketing perspectives. It would be interesting if future researchers extended their research to other areas, like example the affect of producers and their employees or perspective of healthcare, therefore to more understood regarding satisfaction and behavior of consumers.
And, for this research it is recommended that should be more widen to outside people are not just for people of IPK College. Since if this research only for IPK College it will be neglecting more other people regarding with the smartphone of satisfaction and behavior.
This research has yielded an outcome with respect to the key determinant of fulfilment among IPK College students in smartphone item category. The outcome demonstrates that the impact of factors, for example, social influence, country of origin, product judgement, brand image and product features with all things are clearly affecting customer satisfaction towards smartphone products. Among all factors, the variable of product judgment has demonstrated the most grounded impact towards the dependent variable, thus its means the item and its producer’s nation to be as critical factors when smartphone is purchased.
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