Examinations in secondary schools serve three main purposes.The first
is a selection function and entails controlling access to secondary schools,
courses within schools and entry to higher education institutions. The
second is a certifying function and entails finding out and reporting
what a student has achieved, whether they have graduated and what
they know and are able to do. In addition, systems often make use of
examination results for accountability purposes and in particular for
evaluating the effectiveness of instruction, for motivating students and
teachers to perform well, and for reviewing the effectiveness of schools.
Many examinations within the countries considered in this booklet are
required to serve all three purposes.
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