event – peer relationships) Identity – Image of self is organised into one’s constant abilities, their beliefs and drives unique to that individual .Role confusion results from the failure to establish individual identity outside the family sphere and having no peer relationships and plans for a profession.-Ego diffusion.
Stage six is Intimacy vs Isolation (Age 19 years to 40 years, relationship-friend, partners, and key event –Love relationships) Start of families. The ability to care for others and share experiences with them is enabled by intimacy. This results in bonds of Strong relationships. Isolation stems from a feeling of being alone and uncared for in life resulting in loneliness.
Stage seven is Generality vs Despair (Age 40years to 65 years, relationship – household, workmates, key event – parenting) Primary development task is one of the contributing to society to help guide future generations. Generativity an interest in guiding the next generation in social involvement and parenting. Stagnation: Is a phase where there is a lack of productivity, the individual shows only concern with one’s own needs and comforts, material possessions and physical wellbeing. Stage eight is Integrity vs Despair Age is 65 years to death, relationship, mankind, my kind. A very important event at this stage is the event of reflection and the acceptance of one’s life. In the last stages of life individuals look back at their lives and judge them, Integrity: self-respect; developed when people have lived richly and responsibly. Feeling of wisdom and meaning-despair; occurs when the previous life events are viewed with regret; experience heartache and remorse as well as regret and bitterness. (Erikson, 1984)
Generativity evokes need to feel closer to others, correlated with extraversion, openness to new experiences and most likely to be involved in community, social relationships.
Nsamenang discovered three patterns on his quest to discover how Nso children acquired cultural competence, firstly, observation and limitation, secondly, attention to the themes of prototypic stories and lastly co-participation in major activities, especially within peer mentoring. He concluded affirmatively that Nso children are active in their own socialisation, emphasis of which is based on obedience and social responsibility. Within the African world view, it is evident that human beings need other humans and social responsibility to individuate adequately and attain full personhood. Social ontogenetic paradigm premise lies not on the independent or autonomous frame but on an interdependent or relation script. Social ontogenetic paradigm does not exclude nature, it assumes that biology supports social ontogenesis. Social ontogenesis addresses how throughout developmental, children are co-participants in social and cultural life.
It is proposed that the theory of development is partly determined by social systems and ecology in which the development occurs and how the human being learns and develops. Development transformation in the individual brought about by participation in cultural activities. Child development is viewed as a process of gradual and systemic social intergration.AS children are initiated into and actively engage in cultural life, they gradually and systemically individuate into and assume particular levels of personhood, identity and being
The stages of social selfhood include seven stages each with core features, developmental tasks and expected outcomes. The first stage is the period of neonates, the core features are identified by happiness for the safe arrival, the gifts and the projections regarding his/future. Developmental tasks include the naming ceremony, names determined on the basis of historical and circumstantial factors, transcendent, character evoking, expectation laden. The second stage is social priming. The core features in this stage are infancy period which is still pre –social. Developmental tasks termed social priming such as smiling, crying, teething and sitting up. Babies are cuddled and teased to smile along with adults’ .parents and caregivers of the child offer them food items and toys to play with, and lure them both verbally and through gifts. Expected outcomes in this stage is the preliminary step toward induction and their entire social system. In the third stage is social apprenticing. Core features in this stage are the social apprentice, novice. Developmental tasks are initiated into the social roles. The Principal development task is to recognize and rehearse social roles that pertain to the three hierarchal spheres of life, household, network and public. The expected outcomes in this developmental stage are the delegation of responsibility for care and socialization of younger children to preadolescents and adolescents serves the function of priming of social responsibility.
Progressing into the fourth stage of social selfhood we find puberty whose core feature is social entrée. Developmental tasks are the appearance of secondary sex characteristics. May attend initiation ceremonies. The fifth stage is simply defined as the social internment, its core feature is adolescence and the developmental tasks include social induction, preparation and training for adulthood. The sixth stage which follows is termed Adulthood and its core features are adulthood. The developmental tasks are marriage and responsible parenthood. Seniority increases with the birth of each child. The last and final stage of the social selfhood in the seventh stage is old age and death (senescence). Its core features are old age. Developmental tasks include grand parenting. The epitome of social competence and living with the blood in them
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