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CONTENTS Chapter Page ABSTRACTi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSiii LIST OF TABLESiii LIST OF FIGURESiii INTRODUCTION1 Background to the Study1 Scope of the Study1 Organisation of the Study1 Aims and Objectives21 LITERATURE REVIEW3 What is translation

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CONTENTS
Chapter Page
ABSTRACTi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSiii
LIST OF TABLESiii
LIST OF FIGURESiii
INTRODUCTION1
Background to the Study1
Scope of the Study1
Organisation of the Study1
Aims and Objectives21
LITERATURE REVIEW3
What is translation?3
Translation procedures by Peter Newmark (1988)3
Literal Translation3
Transference3
Naturalisation3
Cultural Equivalent3
Functional Equivalent3
Descriptive Equivalent3
Synonymy3
Through-translation3
Shifts or transposition4
2.2.10. Modulation4
2.2.11. Recognized translation4
2.2.12. Translation label4
2.2.13. Compensation4
2.2.14. Componential analysis4
2.2.15. Reduction and expansion4
2.2.16. Paraphrase4
2.2.17. Couplets4
2.2.18. Notes4
Synopsis of the short story “??????????????”4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY6
Research method6
Research procedure6
Research questions6
DATA ANALYSIS7
4.1. Analysis of prominent translation procedures in the short story “??????????????”7
Literal translation7
Naturalisation8
Culturalisation8
Descriptive Equivalent9
Functional Equivalent9
Synonymy9
Reduction and Expansion9
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION11
Prominent Translation Procedures in “??????????????” 11
CONCLUSION19
REFERENCES20
APPENDICES21
ABSTRACT
This paper aims at examining the use of translation procedures proposed by Peter Newmark in the short story “??????????????” written by Khin Hnin Yu, translated by Ma Thanegi. Moreover, this study indicates the procedures that offer shifts in translating literary texts and investigates whether using several different procedure is effective or not in the proposed short story. The language structures collected from the translated version by Ma Thanegi were classified into categories and analysed based on the translation procedures proposed by Peter Newmark (1988). Qualitative method is used to conduct this research. According to the previous research by the researchers, the use of translation methods are analysed and discussed. However, the research on translaion procedures in translating short stories is relatively rare according to some observation. This research will be beneficial for those who are undergoing the process of translating literary text, especially those who are exploring the most frequently applied translation procedures when translating a short story.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Firstly, we would like to show our gratitude to Sayagyi Dr. Kyi Shwin, Rector of Yangon University of Foreign Languages for giving us this valuable opportunity.

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Secondly, we would like to express our tremendous appreciation to Dr. Ni Ni Aung, Professor and Head of the Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages, for her careful instructions.

Thirdly, we sincerely would like to thank Saya U Myo Lwin, the Lecturer, Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages for providing us with careful guidance and supervising us through the whole process of this study. Moreover, we are also grateful to Teacher Daw Yee Yee Lwin, the Lecturer, Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages for her wholehearted suggestions and lectures on Translation and Interpretation module for two consecutive years.

Lastly, this study could not be completed without sincere encouragement and support of all our beloved teachers. So, we would like to take this chance to thank all of our teachers from English Department at Yangon University of Foreign Languages.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
1. SL – source language
2. TL – target language
3. pg – page
LIST OF TABLES
Table 5.1.1Prominent Translation Procedures in “??????????????”
Table 5.1.2Category of Literal Translation Found in “??????????????”
Table 5.1.3Category of Naturalisation Found in “??????????????”
Table 5.1.4Category of Cultural Equivalent Found in “??????????????”
Table 5.1.5Category of Functional Equivalent Found in “??????????????”
Table 5.1.6Category of Descriptive Equivalent Found in “??????????????”
Table 5.1.7Category of Synonymy Found in “??????????????”
Table 5.1.8Category of Reduction and Expansion Found in “??????????????”
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 5.1.1Prominent Translation Procedures in “??????????????”
1. INTRODUCTION
Translation takes a major role in the development of a nation since it can enhance the knowledge of people with translated texts or books in various aspects of study. In the process of translation, a translator has to focus on different parts of speech which are expressed in two different languages. It is also important for a translator to have a great knowledge about common procedures used to translate several different text types. Translating short stories is tied both in words and their meanings. Moreover, source language and target language are not quite identical which makes translation to be a challenging task. To overcome this, a number of translation procedures are introduced to prevent from the losses in translating short stories.

1.1. Background to the Study
For being a better-qualified translation, the use of translation procedures plays a vital role. Different scholars defined translation procedures in various ways. Among them, the translation procedures of Peter Newmark (1988) are used as a model in this study and they are analysed to discover what kind of procedures are used in the translated version of the short story “??????????????”.

In the short story “??????????????”, the author described the life of a young woman who faced ups and downs in her whole life. It was written by Khin Hnin Yu, one of the most well-known female writers, who has been a winner of Myanmar National Literary Award in 1961 and 1995. It was published in “Mirror-Image Like Short Stories Collections”. Furthermore, the translator of this story, Ma Thanegi is best known for her translated works of Khin Hnin Yu and other Myanmar writers.
1.2. Scope of the Study
The scope of this study emphasizes on the recurring uses of translation procedures of Peter Newmark(1988). It also focuses on imprecise translation caused by such procedures and the differences between source and target language.
1.3. Organisation of the study
The paper is organised into six major chapters. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the study in which aims and objectives of the study, background to the study, and scope of the study and organisation of the study are included. Chapter 2 deals with literature review which mentions the role of translation along with several translation procedures proposed by Peter Newmark (1988). Chapter 3 focuses on research methodology of the study in which research methods, research procedures and research questions are mentioned as subdivisions. Chapter 4 provides detailed analysis of data. Chapter 5 emphasizes findings and discussion. Chapter 6, the final chapter of the study, pays attention to a brief conclusion of the paper.

1.4. Aims and objectives
This study aims at identifying and describing the translation procedures used by Ma Thanegi in her translated version of Khin Hnin Yu’s short story. It also attempts to figure out the translation procedures which are frequently used by the translator and the situations in which such kind of procedures are used. Its objective is to examine the translation of Ma Thanegi and determine whether it is effective to use several different procedures in translating source language texts to target language texts by investigating the uses of translation procedures.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. What is translation?
According to Peter Newmark (1988), the art of translation is transferring meaning of the text from one language to another, taking care mainly of the functional relevant meaning. It is a kind of social tool that can help people to communicate in their respective society. To make such communication successful, it is essential for them to have a mutual understanding of different aspects of both source language and target language. Sometimes, there are times at which a translator fails to convey the exact meaning of the target language. Understanding of variations in cultural aspects of different countries can therefore help to overcome such challenges. Hence, translation can be said as an activity to convey meaning from one language to another through the standard of equivalency in meaning.

2.2. Translation procedures by Peter Newmark (1988)
The choice of translation methods and procedures takes a major role in translation process. According to Peter Newmark (1988), translation procedures can be classified as follows:
Literal translation: SL words, phrases, clauses, sentences and its grammatical structures are converted to their nearest form in TL. However, lexical items are translated out of context.
Transference: SL words are transmitted in the text of TL. This usually occurs when vocabularies in SL don’t present in TL.

Naturalisation: SL words are adapted into the normal pronunciation and they are then changed into normal morphology (word- form) of TL.
Cultural equivalent: SL words are replaced with the words that are present in the culture of TL.
Functional equivalent: SL words are translated into cultural- free words of TL.

Descriptive equivalent: SL word is explained in descriptive terms of TL. It sometimes has to be weighed against function.

Synonymy: SL words are substituted by TL words which have a similar meaning.

Through-Translation: it is the literal translation of common collocations, names of organizations and components of compounds.
Shifts or Transpositions: SL grammar is changed into suitable grammar of TL.

Modulation: the message of the text in SL is mentioned in TL text with changes in terms of perspective so that it is suitable with the usual or normal situations of TL.

Recognized translation: it occurs when the translator normally uses the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional term.

Translation Label: SL institutional terms are translated by the use of inverted comma in TL text. It can be done by means of literal translation.

Compensation: it occurs when loss of meaning in one part of a sentence is compensated in another part.
Componential analysis: SL word is compared with TL word which has a similar meaning. However, it is not obvious or one- to- one equivalent. Firstly, their common senses will be demonstrated and they are soon followed by differing their sense components.
Reduction and expansion: Both are used to change lexical and stylistic aspects of SL to TL. Reduction occurs when the number of elements from SL is reduced while expansion happens when the number of words exceeds in translating SL.

Paraphrase: the meaning of the word in SL is clarified by using several words in TL and it is more precise than descriptive equivalent.
Couplets: two different procedures are combined in translating SL into TL.

Notes: additional information added at the end of the translation.

2.3. Synopsis
The story entitled “??????????????” is one of Khin Hnin Yu’s well-known short stories. The story portrays the inevitable suffering of the old age. In this story, the main character is Ma Shwe Sin, a maid of the Liu couple. Ma Shwe Sin thought that she was very lucky to work in such a big house. She envied the Lius for owning this house and she had a passion on this house as soon as she arrived. She emulated the life of the Lius and wanted to stay in this house forever. She even wanted to become mistress of such a house. Later, she flirted with Mr Liu and became pregnant. She never regretted for this case and she didn’t even worry for her future at first. However, she was asked to leave the house and go away to give birth. She was very hurt to leave the house. Soon, she gave birth to a boy. Then, Mr Liu came and took them back when he heard the news. Unfortunately, Shwe Sin had to leave the house again for the sake of her son. Since then, she felt no joy and her life became meaningless as she had to stay away from the ones she loved. She became older and older and she doesn’t look pretty as she was. After Mrs Liu passed away, Mr Liu and her son came to take her back to the house she longed to as a mistress. Her dream came true and she was very happy at first, but this time she couldn’t get the enchanting feeling she used to get when she was young. Everything was still unchanged, however, she couldn’t enjoy it as she got older and her senses are not as sharp as before.

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Method
In this study, qualitative research has been used. The data sources have been collected from the original version of Khin Hnin Yu’s short story “??????????????”, English translated version of Ma Thanegi. Datas have been analysed through Peter Newmark (1988)’s translation procedures.

3.2. Research Procedures
This research has been conducted through several steps. Firstly, translation procedures of Peter Newmark (1988) were studied to have a better understanding. Secondly, original and translated versions of “??????????????” were read to investigate different kinds of translation procedures used by the translator. Thirdly, prominent translation procedures applied in the story were figured out by means of analysis of the language structure used in the story. Finally, the findings were explained in details with statistics.
3.3. Research Questions
The research questions are as follows:
What are prominent translation procedures used in translating short story “??????????????”?
What kind of procedures can lead to shifts from source language to target language and why they are used?
What is the impact of using several different procedures in translating SL texts to TL texts especially in the case of short stories and why?
4. DATA ANALYSIS
4.1. Analysis of Prominent Translation Procedures in Khin Hnin Yu’s Short Story
The following data is acquired by analyzing the prominent translation procedures in Khin Hnin Yu’s translated version of “??????????????” by Ma Thanegi.
Literal Translation
Example 1
Source Text???????????????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????? (pg- 21, line- 12)
Target TextShe had to sit by the Lius in the dining room. (pg- 26, line- 12)
Context???????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????
In the culture of source language, “????????????” is a room that is mainly used to have meals. The SL word “????????????” is translated in the target language by its direct equivalent “dining room”. Since lexical words are translated singly, out of context into target language, it is categorised into one word to one word literal translation procedure.

Example 2
Source Text?????????????? ????????? ????????????????????????? ????????????????? ????????????????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????????????(pg- 22, line- 32)
Target TextEvery morning Shwe Sin had to go up to the Lius’ bedrooms to serve them hot porridge of oats and milk. (pg- 26, line- 28)
Context ???????????????? ??????? ??????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????
In the culture of source language, “??????????” is the early time of the day that happens regularly. The SL word “??????????” is translated in the target language by its direct equivalent “every morning”. Since lexical words are translated singly, out of context into target language, it is categorised into group to group literal translation procedure.

Example 3
Source Text?????????????????????????? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????” ????????????????? (pg- 23, line- 76)
Target Text”We will adopt him legally, but if Shwe Sin is here the baby will love her more, so we can’t let her stay,” said Mrs. Liu. (pg- 27, line- 60)
Context???????????????????? ??????????????? ????????????????????????
In this example, “???????? ???????????????????” means the possbility of the presence of Shwe Sin together with her son in the Lius household. “???????? ???????????????????” is translated into the nearest equivalent grammar structure of target language as “but if Shwe Sin is here”. Therefore, it is categorised into clause to clause literal translation procedure.

Example 4
Source Text???????????????? ???????????? (pg- 24, line- 93)
Target TextMy wife also passed away. (pg- 28, line- 72)
Context??????? ?????????? ??????????????????????????
In this example, “???????????????? ????????????” means that Liu’s wife has died. “???????????????? ????????????” is translated into the direct equivalent of the structure in target language as “My wife also passed away.” Therefore, this kind of procedure is categorised into sentence to sentence literal translation procedure.

Naturalisation
Example 5
Source Text????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? (pg- 24, line- 98)
Target TextI inherited the house on Inya Lake. (pg- 28, line- 75)
Context?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????
In this example, “????????” is normal pronunciation of the name of a lake in source language. Since the word “????????” is translated as “Inya” according to its pronunciation in source language, it is categorised into naturalisation procedure.

Cultural Equivalent
Example 6
Source Text??????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? (pg- 25, line- 138)
Target TextAs the mistress of the house, she could wear silk sarongs everyday. (pg- 29, line- 100)
Context????????????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????
In this example, the SL cultural word “???????????” is replaced with the word that is present in the culture of TL “sarongs”. Therefore, it is categorised into cultural equivalent procedure.

Descriptive Equivalent
Example 7
Source Text??????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????????????? (pg- 22, line- 30)
Target TextBoats with white sails moved slowly on the lake. (pg- 26, line- 25)
Context?????????????? ????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????
In this example, the SL word “???????????” is explained in descriptive terms of the target language as “Boats with white sails”. Thus, it is categorised into descriptive equivalent procedure.

Functional Equivalent
Example 8
Source Text??????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????????????? (pg- 21, line- 5)
Target TextThe fragrance made the inhabitants feel fresh and happy. (pg- 26, line- 5)
Context????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???????????
In this example, the SL cultural word “???????????” is translated into cultural- free words of TL “inhabitants”. Therefore, it is categorised into functional equivalent procedure.

Synonymy
Example 9
Source Text????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? (pg- 22, line- 37)
Target TextShe placed the bowl of porridge on the table and went to open the French windows of Mr. Liu’s bedroom. (pg- 29, line- 35)
Context???????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????
In this example, the SL word “??????????????” is substituted by the TL word which have a similar meaning “French windows”. Therefore, it is categorised into synonymy procedure.

Reduction and Expansion
Example 10
Source Text????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????????? (pg- 21, line- 7)
Target Text The carpet in Mr.Liu’s room was soft like velvet. (pg- 26, line- 6)
Context??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????
In this example, the SL words “??????????” are omitted and SL sentence is reduced to “The carpet in Mr.Liu’s room was soft like velvet.” in TL. Since a shift (reducing SL words) can be found in translating SL text to TL text, it is categorised into reduction procedure.

Example 11
Source Text????? ??????????????? ???????????????????? “?????????????? ???” (pg- 22, line- 40)
Target TextShe walked out to the balcony and looked down. Roses! How lovely! (pg- 27, line- 34)
Context????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????
In this example, the extra TL words “How lovely!” are added to move from the implicit to the explicit to convey the right meaning to the readers. Since a shift (exceeding SL words) can be found in translating SL text to TL text, it is categorised into expansion procedure.

5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter deals with the findings and discussion of the data obtained from the analysis of prominent translation procedures in translating short story “??????????????”.

5.1. The Categories of Prominent Translation Procedures in “??????????????”
In this section, the categories of prominent translation procedures found in the Khin Hnin Yu’s translated version of “??????????????” by Ma Thanegi have been mentioned. According to the data, there are 68 items which are found under 7 prominent translation procedures. The findings of them are described in the following table and diagram.

Table 5.1.1Prominent Translation Procedures in “??????????????”
No. Translation procedures Number of Items Percentage
1. Literal translation 45 66%
2. Naturalisation 3 4.50%
3. Cultural Equivalent 1 1.50%
4. Functional Equivalent 2 3%
5. Descriptive Equivalent 3 4.50%
6. Synonymy 3 4.50%
7. Reduction and Expansion 10 16%
Total 68 100%
Figure 5.1.1Prominent Translation Procedures in “??????????????”

The above diagram depicts prominent translation procedures of Peter Newmark (1988) used in translating short story “??????????????”. These prominent translation procedures are literal translation, naturalisation, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, descriptive equivalent, synonymy and reduction and expansion. According to table 1, it is observed that there are 68 items under these 7 prominent translation procedures.
As in diagram 1, among 7 prominent translation procedures, literal translation is the most commonly applied procedure which accounts for 66%. This is followed by reduction and expansion procedure at 16%. It is notably found out that naturalisation, descriptive equivalent and synonymy stand the same frequency each with 4.5%. However, the use of functional equivalent procedure can be seen only as 3%. The least frequently applied procedure is cultural equivalent procedure which results in 1.5%.

According to the required data, shift from source language to target language mostly occur when reduction and expansion translation procedure is applied. Shift is known as the changes in lexical and grammatical aspects of the source language to target language. In translating Khin Hnin Yu’s short story “??????????????”, the translator used reduction and expansion procedure, leading to shifts. Though it is imprecise translation, the translator used this procedure to add some missing elements to target language or eliminate the unnecessary source language words so that she can adapt the content of the message and create a similar impact on the target language as in source language. Moreover, the translator focused on the principle of relevance. It was also made sure that any crucial information is omitted. Therefore, it can be said that the translator used the procedure of reduction and expansion to broaden the border in two different languages while providing a relevant and understandable pieces of information in target language to the readers.
In the field of translation, it is important to be familiar with translation “procedures”, “techniques”, “strategies”, “processes”, “methods” and etc. For a translator, one of the most crucial and frequent things is using several different procedures in translating a text. According to the data that are found out in this study, using many procedures in translation has positive impacts on translating. It can offer better quality translation. It is impossible to stick on just one procedure because words can have several different meanings. Apart from it, language is the art that is composed with creativity. While making an attempt to translating the subject matter at hand, the translator needs to keep creative structure and content to get the reader’s attention and interest. In doing so, it is essential to use several different procedures. Most important of all, every culture has different values and norms. They are quite sensitive matters for translators since it can lead to digression in target language text. To avoid this, the translators need to provide clear and correct message to TL readers and it cannot be achieved without using several procedures. Hence, it is clearly found out that using several different procedures in translating SL texts to TL texts is effective due to the above reasons.

Table 5.1.2Category of Literal Translation Found in “??????????????”
Source Language Target Language
????????? god
?????? destiny
????????????? flowers
???? fragrance
??????? carpet
???????? walls
?? breeze
????? servant
???? wife
???????? grape
??????? yesterday
????????? senses
??????????????? roses
???????? pray
????????? steam
?????? table
??????? dream
?????? chin
Source Language Target Language
???? child
??????? adopt
??????????? tears
?????? beautiful
?????? remember
??????????? worms
??????? skin
??????????? legs
???????? but
?????? hip
?????? balcony
???????????? dining room
??????????????????? cane chairs
?????????? every morning
????? cool breeze
?????????????????? oak and milk
??????????? a lot of money
????????????? Shwe Sin’s parents
??????????????? the blue veins
Source Language Target Language
??????????????????? soft like velvet
?????????????? next to the dining table
?????????????? adopt the kid
?????????????????????????? if she were the owner
????? ????????????? ?????????????? if she could stay in this house forever
??????? ??????????????????? but if Shwe sin is here
??????????????????????????? time passed
???????????????? ???????????? my wife also passed away
Table 5.1.3Category of Naturalisation Found in “??????????????”
Source Language Target Language
?????? Shwe Sin
???? Liu
???????? Inya
Table 5.1.4Category of Cultural Equivalent Found in “??????????????”
Source Language Target Language
??????????? sarongs
Table 5.1.5Category of Functional Equivalent Found in “??????????????”
Source Language Target Language
??????????? inhabitants
??????????????? flower shades
Table 5.1.6Category of Descriptive Equivalent Found in “??????????????”
Source Language Target Language
??????????? boats with white sails
????????? glass-fronted cupboard
???????????? ????????????????????????? the house, built with its back to the lake
Table 5.1.7Category of Synonymy Found in “??????????????”
Source Language Target Language
?????????????? cream
?????????????? French windows
??????? day by day

Table 5.1.8Category of Reduction and Expansion Found in “??????????????”
Source Language Target Language
??????????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? the carpet in liu’s room was soft like velvet.

???????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? Liu eating porridge
…?????????????????????????????????? …she went away
?????????????????????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????????????? One day in one summer, Mr. Liu and her son came to her.

…?????????????????????????????????? …the lights pink
???????????????????????? Strawberries
???????????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? She had to sit by the Lius in the dining room when they have their meals.

????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? “?????????????????” She walked out to the balcony and looked down. Roses! How lovely!
?????????????????????????? Shwe Sin’s husband passed away, poor chap.

??????????????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???? As the mistress of the house, she could wear silk sarongs everyday. She had nowhere to go.

6. CONCLUSION
This study keeps focus on prominent translation procedures from Myanmar to English language in Khin Hnin Yu’s short story, “???????????????” and the exploration of the selected and represented words, phrases, clauses and sentences in terms of translation procedures of Peter Newmark (1988).

Based on the findings, most of the language structures which follows Peter Newmark’s translation procedures are translated with literal translation procedure. It is followed by reduction and expansion in the second position. Thirdly, naturalisation, descriptive, synonymy translation procedures are equally applied in the story. Next, functional equivalent procedure stands in the fourth position and finally, the least used procedure by translator is cultural equivalent.

Using too much procedures can sometimes make the readers confused and leave the sense or meaning of the translated text deviated from the source language text. The efffectiveness of using translation procedures is mostly decided upon the reader’s understanding of the message or sense provided in the translated text. If the readers get a different message or the wrong sense about the original text by reading the translated one, such translated text can be said to be a fail. According to the use of the traslation procedures by the translator, it can be seen that the translator, Ma Thanegi used several procedures, making a positive impact on translating short story. She helped the readers understand especially different cultural contexts between Mynmar and English through her careful and precise choice of procedures.
Quality of this study is restricted to owing the time limit of research, the inadequate references as well as medium scope of the study. As a result of limitations, examples stated in this paper, however, cannot cover all cases in real practice of translating short stories.

The study obviously cannot offer detailed explanations of translation procedures of Peter Newmark (1988) and all of the procedures applied by translator in the short story up to the expectation. It is hoped that this finding would be beneficial for those who are undergoing the analysis of translation procedures of Peter Newmark (1988) by identifying the useful language structure and facts in this study.

REFERENCES
Newmark, O. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. New York and London: Prentice Hall International Ltd.

Moe Wai, K. (2016). A Study of Translation Procedures in Tin Maung Myint’s Translated Version of Leo Tolstoy’s “Anna Karenina” with a Focus on Cultural Words.

Minn Htet, Y. (2017). A Study of Cultural Word Translation Procedures Used in Tun Aung Chain’s Translated Version of “Maung Yin Maung and Ma Me’ Ma” by James Hla Gyaw.

Thanegi, M. (2008). Khin Hnin Yu’s Short Stories. Retrieved from Things Myanmar.

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APPENDICES
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???????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????
????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????????????????????
???????????? ???????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????? ????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ????
?????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ??????? ?????????????????????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????? ????????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????????
?????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????
???????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????
????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????
???????????? ????????????????????????????????
????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????
???????????????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????????????? (???????)?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????
?????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????????????
??????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????????
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Body and Sense
Ma Shwe Sin had no idea whether to thank God or thank her destiny, but she felt that her luck has turned for the better when she arrived in this house.

The owner was Mr. Liu, with a beautiful wife. Shwe Sin went into every room, and the whole house smelled good: she could not tell whether it was because of the many small vases of flowers in every room, or the smell of burning incense sticks. The fragrance made the inhabitants feel fresh and happy. The carpet in Liu’s room was soft like velvet. Her bare soles felt so good Shwe Sin dragged her feet as she walked. The walls were painted a pale yellow. Shwe Sin thought that if she were the owner, she would paint the walls the colour of doves’ eggs. If the lights were pale blue, how peaceful and cool the room would be! But her employers were Chinese so they used a lot of pink and yellow.

She was just a maid in this house but had the easiest duties among all the other servants. She had to sit by the Lius in the dining room when they have their meals and gently fan away the one or two flies that very rarely came in. The flower shades stuck to the wall were pink so the light shone pink in the room. The grapes and apples on the glass-fronted cupboard next to the dining table gave out delicious scents of the fruits. Shwe Sin had to pour a few drops of eau de cologne in the water basin for Mrs. Liu to wash her hands after the meal. Everything was amazing to Shwe Sin. How pleasant their lives were, day and night!
In the evenings, Shwe Sin had to put chilled strawberries and cream in a glass bowl and take them to her master and mistress, who would be sitting on cane chairs set out in the back garden. The cool breeze from Inya Lake would feel so fresh. She would place the tray on the low table and then spoon the strawberries and cream into two smaller bowls. The house, built with its back to the lake, looked magnificent in the light of the setting sun. She felt the grass her bare toes. How soft is the grass, she said to herself. It had been cut only yesterday so the lawn was green and smooth. She looked out over the lake: the waters were blue, and greenish nearer the shore. Boats with white sails moved slowly on the lake. At times the sun would glint on the waves and turn them to diamonds. She closed her eyes and enjoyed the moment.

Every morning Shwe Sin had to go up to the Lius’ bedrooms to serve them hot porridge of oats and milk. The westernised couple slept in different rooms. She just needed to look tidy and smart without doing hard work, so Shwe Sin’s looks improved day by day.

She placed the bowl of porridge on the table and went to open the French windows of Mr. Liu’s bedroom. The cool morning breeze of the lake blew in from the windows.

“What a wonderful cool breeze!” Mr. Liu said. She walked out to the balcony and looked down. Roses! How lovely! She thought the roses blooming in the garden looked wonderful seen from above. She envied the Lius for owning this house. She has heard that it costs a one hundred thousand Kyats to build this house, a sum of money undreamt of by her. There was no way she could become mistress of such a house. Anyhow she prayed that she would never leave this place. She turned back into the room and saw Liu eating porridge, the steam from which was rising towards his face. She went to the table and stood waiting as usual. The early sunlight brightened the yellow walls. Liu looked up at Shwe Sin.

“Your cheeks are like roses,” he said.

Shwe Sin had no idea whether to smile or not. She listened in a daze. Liu got up from his chair and took her chin in his hands, then he pinched her cheek softly. She stood still, her heart hammering and her hands shaking.

“I’m going,” she stuttered and taking up the porridge bowl went slowly out of the room. What was happening to her, she thought. If she could stay in this house forever she was willing to give herself to Liu.

Mr Liu stopped going out at night with Mrs Liu, and began to stay at home to be with Shwe Sin. He was happy to be with her, with the result that she soon found herself pregnant. When she found out, Shwe Sin did not feel sorry for herself, she did not even worry about the future. What pained her was that Mr. Liu asked her to go away to give birth and gave her a lot of money. Shwe Sin was pained to leave the house.

Shwe Sin covered her still-slim waist and went away. Mr. Liu told Mrs Liu that Shwe Sin’s parents wanted to get her married. That was her story and she would cry every time she had a dream about the house. She gave birth to a boy and Mr Liu came running when he heard the news. He took back both mother and child. He told Mrs Liu,
“Shwe Sin’s husband passed away, poor chap. Why don’t we adopt the kid?”
The baby was as fair as his father. Mrs Liu loved the boy and adopted him legally. The childless couple, being Chinese, liked having a son.

“We will adopt him legally, but if Shwe Sin is here the baby will love her more, so we can’t let her stay,” said Mrs. Liu. So again She Sin left the house, this time for the sake of her son. She felt in a perpetual daze and that helped her get through the years. Time passed. There was even a world war. She did not notice the passing seasons, felt no joy in the dew or felt any longing with the grey rainy days. Her joy was all with the house and her son, and away from the two dearest to her heart, she felt nothing.

Now her eyes no longer shone, her hair scattered, she has grown old. One day in one summer, Mr Liu and her son came to her. She stared at her son and when he kissed her tears welled up in her eyes and she could not see him clearly. Her son has grown into a beautiful boy.

“So you remember me, son?” she asked, her arms around her son. Her hands are yellow and wrinkled, the blue veins standing out like worms under the crinkly skin.

“I told him about us,” Mr. Liu said. “My wife also passed away.”
“What? …..”She looked up at Liu. Her cheeks that he first pinched were sagged and sunken. Liu also had grown old but did not seem to have lost his spirits.

“Mother, you don’t look too well…we’re here to take you back with us. I inherited the house on Inya Lake, Mother,” her son told her.

“The house? …”
When she heard the word her eyes sparkled for the first time. She tried to smile but her smile no longer looked pretty.

They took her back, this time she entered the house not as a servant but as the mistress. They helped her up the stairs and as she climbed slowly, she peered at the walls but could not discern the colour. Her bed was made up in Liu’s old room. She shuffled her bare feet to feel again the velvety touch of the carpet but she felt nothing.

“Why is that?” she wondered. She tried dragging her soles again. “Are my legs numb?”
When she was on the bed she looked up around the room. The walls were still yellow and the lights pink. Apart from the brightness of the light she was not sure if she saw the colours.

“Mother, what will you have, grapes or strawberries?” her son asked tenderly.

She Sin thought back to the chilled strawberries, red in the glass bowls, she had served in her youth.

“Strawberries.”
Her son bought her some with cream, in a glass bowl, exactly like it was.

“Here, Mother, have one.” He put a strawberry coated with cream into her mouth. She chewed slowly. The taste was nothing; it was just somewhat sour and bitter. She felt depressed.

She laid her head on the pillow and closed her eyes. The roses in the vase on the table wafted out their perfume and the grapes by her bed sent out their aroma. But she smelt nothing and felt nothing. She thought back on her life, feeling that memories would be sweeter. But she could not concentrate on anything, her thoughts drifted and disappeared.

As the mistress of the house, she could wear silk sarongs everyday. She had nowhere to go. The silk covering her thin frame, she dozed on Liu’s old bed, looking like a human only because of the clothes over her. Otherwise she might have looked like a skeleton.

The young maid came to give her medicine. Afterwards she went over to the balcony and looked out over the lake. The waters were still like a smooth emerald. Sailboats drifted lazily. She stood gazing and then turned towards the bed. Shwe Sin’s sarong had slipped from her waist and the maid pulled it up over the hips.

“What bony hips!” she muttered and smiled to herself.

The breeze came gently through the windows, as always. The house stood in its usual splendour. But Shwe Sin could not enjoy it, what good are her senses now?

x

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