Chronic liver diseases are considered to be one of the most serious health problems in the world, affecting more than 10% of the world population (Hong et al., 2015). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report in 2013, chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis were the twelfth leading cause of death in the United States ,causing for more than 36,000 deaths (Setiawan et al., 2016). American liver foundation in Cedar Grove, N.J, reported that liver disease is the third leading disease-related cause of death for many people of ages 25 to 59 (Akharaiyi, Boboye and Adetuyi, 2012). The prevalence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in general population of Western countries is estimated to be 20-30% (Paschos and Paletas, 2009).
Nearly 1 out of every 3 people in the world, approximately 2 billion people, has been infected by HBV and HCV (Ilyas et al., 2016) (Ilyas et al., 2016) and around 500 million of these are chronically infected (Shiferaw, Letebo and Bane, 2016). About 1 million deaths per year are attributed to viral hepatitis infection (HBV and HCV) (Ilyas et al., 2016). The prevalence of HBV is estimated to be 8% in West Africa, and 5–7% in Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa (Olokoba, Aderibigbe and Kayode, 2010). In Kenya and Ethiopia, it is estimated that more than 60% of chronic liver disease and up to 80% of hepatocellular cancers are due to chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections. Recent study revealed that the prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia to be approximately 10–15% and that of HCV to be approximately 2–5%(Bane, Patil and Khatib, 2014). Surveillance on chronic liver disease of unidentified cause in the northwestern region of Tigray in 2001 showed fatality rates around 30 to 40% (Chiu et al., 2016). In United States, it was reported that nearly 44,000 individuals suffer from drug induced liver injury each year (LN Bell and N, 2010) and around 30,000 patients were admitted to hospitals every year for treatment of paracetamol hepatotoxicity (Yoon et al., 2016).
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