This chapter focuses primarily on the background of the study, the various objectives the study, aim at achieving and the significance of the study. It gives brief description of how the study is organized.
In every organization for which the school is not an exception, management is expected to produce results. These results do not just happen overnight. They demand great efforts by the leaders who in turn, are to steer the affairs of the organization. The style of leadership and its impact on teacher’s job satisfaction on the side of Head teachers has been a great concern not only to the government a lone but to the general public at large.
Since Educational institutions are critical places where the next generations are educated and school leaders bear a heavy burden of responsibility for their institutions. Leadership style of head teachers plays an important role in school effectiveness and teacher job satisfaction as they provide directions, implementation of plans and motivation to his/her subordinate (Teachers) as well as the students. Since the importance of leadership for school effectiveness and teacher job satisfaction is an accepted element. Different head teachers have different style of leading. These styles of leadership include autocratic leadership style, Democratic leadership style, Laissez-faire, Transformational leadership style just to mention few.
According to an article written by target study, An autocracy can be defined as a system of government in which the supreme political power or the ruling power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control. Autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian leadership, is characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. Single person is in the power to judge everything and there is no other superior post to challenge his decision. Autocratic leadership style is centered on the head teacher. In this leadership the head teacher holds all authority and responsibility. The head teachers make decisions on their own without consulting subordinates (teachers). They reach decisions, communicate them to teachers and expect prompt implementation. Autocratic work environment does normally have little or no flexibility. In this kind of leadership, guidelines, procedures and policies are all-natural additions of an autocratic head teacher. Autocratic leadership style is mostly employed y top level managers because it work perfectly for them especially those who prefer having complete control over an operation. Since the decision making process is totally in his hands of the manager, he does not experience the stress of having to rely on help from outside his work area to complete the project or task. For this type of individual, having complete authority can actually result in reduced stress since he has complete control over his own fate.
Democratic leadership style, in this leadership style, Teachers are involved in making decisions. Unlike autocratic, this headship is centered on teachers’ contributions. If head teachers as school managers, sit jointly together with their teacher to set specific institutional objectives to be accomplished within a certain specific time frame, all players buy into the vision, hands are put on deck, objectives are attained. The most unique feature of this leadership is that communication is active upward and downward. With respect to statistics, democratic leadership is one of the most preferred leadership, and it entails the following: fairness, competence, creativity, courage, intelligence and honesty.
Laissez-faire leadership style, this type is the largely hands-off with minimal direction and supervision from the head teacher to the teachers. The key to using this approach is having well trained and efficient teachers who can work as intermediaries between the head teacher and the student body.
There are several styles of leadership such as: autocratic, bureaucratic, laissez?faire, charismatic, democratic, participative, situational, transactional, and transformational leadership. Not everyone agrees that a one style of leadership will result in the most effective form of organizational behavior. Different styles were needed for different situations and each head teacher needed to know when to apply a specific style. No one leadership style is ideal for every situation, since a head teacher may have knowledge and skills to act effectively in one situation but may not emerge as effectively in a different situation.
Public basic school’s success in obtaining its goals and objectives depends on head teachers and their leadership style. By using appropriate leadership styles, head teachers can affect teachers job satisfaction. Leadership style can be viewed as a series of managerial attitudes, behaviors, characteristics and skills based on individual and organizational values, leadership interests and reliability of teachers in different situations. It is the ability of a head teacher to influence teacher to performing at their highest capability. This factor captures the extent to which head teacher’s respects teachers, operates with honesty and integrity, promotes efficiency, and has open lines of communication with teachers.
For Head teachers to achieve their institutional targets, services of people are imperative which in the school setting will be teachers. Head teachers can only use this tool (teachers) effectively when they instill in them a sense of commitment and the desire to accomplish institutional goals. Again, if this tool can be used well, their efforts should be controlled and coordinated toward goal accomplishment. The head teacher in all these should give teachers the opportunity to increase their skills and abilities in contributing to achieving the school aspirations. For a teacher to perform well both in academics and in co-curricular activities, effective and good leadership is needed. In the light of the above, this study attempted to find the relationship between leadership styles of head teachers’ and their impact on teachers’ job satisfaction in schools, with particular reference to public basic school in Kumasi metropolis of the Ashanti region of Ghana.
Quality education has been a priority of every government in Ghana. Almost all the policies and manifesto of every political party in Ghana talks about quality education and how to translate it into high academic performance. Among the policies are the good working conditions of teachers Upon all the efforts made by government and stakeholders to deliver quality education that should translate into high academic performance has remain unachieved.
The output of the Ghanaian teacher is said to be going down in recent years. Most of these teachers are now performing below expectation just because people claim that their condition of service is below standard, Inadequate of learning materials, quality teachers, remuneration, motivation and improved discipline and that has been the stand of a lot of researchers’ on dealing with poor performance of teachers, but this problem could be due to so many factors and one such factor could be the leadership styles adopted by their heads. Leadership styles which are adopted by head teachers usually affect the performance and job satisfaction of teachers either positively or negatively.
The issue of teacher’s job satisfaction in public basic school cannot be dealt with without considering the impact of leadership style of head teachers on teachers’ job satisfaction. We cannot talk about measures of dealing with poor performance in basic schools in Kumasi metropolis without talking about the leaders in the schools.
In attempt to find ways of maximizing teachers job satisfaction in basic schools in Kumasi metropolis. There is a need of to throw more light on head teachers ad their style of leadership in the school, despite the fact that effort has always been made to resolve teachers job satisfaction through research, teaching materials, remuneration, motivation and working condition but without much success. This study was to explore the leadership styles of Head teachers and its effect on teachers’ job satisfaction in public basic schools at Kumasi metropolis, Ghana.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of head teacher’s leadership style on teachers’ job satisfaction in public basic schools at Kumasi metropolis, Ghana.
Objectives of the study
To achieve the above purpose of the study the following objectives were set:
Explore the existing leadership styles of head teachers of public basic schools in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana
To establish whether leadership styles of the Head teachers have impact on teachers’ job satisfaction and the academic performance of students.
To identify the most used leadership styles in public basic schools Kumasi metropolis
To investigate the type of leadership styles which motivate teachers to put up their best.
1.5 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions.
What are the mostly used leadership styles in public basic schools?
What are the teachers’ perceptions towards their head teacher’s leadership styles in schools?
What types of leadership styles motivate teachers to put up their best?
What are the effects of different leadership styles on teachers’ job satisfaction?
Does the leadership style of the Head teachers have impact on the teachers’ job satisfaction?
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study may provide a platform for decision makers in adopting appropriate courses of action needed by those to be appointed as head teachers of public basic schools, for the development of the education system within the metropolis. It may also add knowledge to the type of leadership styles used in public basic schools.
The output of this study would assist policy makers, and training institutions to address the issue of leadership styles and the effects on teachers’ job satisfaction.
There has been a lot of research on leadership style but a few has been link to the direction of Head teachers style of leading and its impact on teacher’s job satisfaction. It is therefore, important to measure the impact of head teachers style of leadership on teachers’ job satisfaction.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
The scope of this study was limited to public basic schools in Kumasi metropolitan assembly. The findings therefore cannot be generalized across the country due to the small samples employed.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Although there are many factors that affect the job satisfaction of teachers but this study was restricted to impact of leadership style of head teachers on teachers’ job satisfaction in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Leadership styles that were of interest to the study include: Autocratic, Laissez Faire, Democratic leadership styles and transformational style of leadership.
1.9 Organization of work
Chapter two concerns itself with what other research have done concerning the topic under study. this chapter reviews studies undertaken by different scholars and any other authorized literature in related topics. It focuses on the various leadership style,
Chapter three focuses on research methodology and comprises of research design, target population, sample size and sampling procedure, research instrument, instrument validity and instrument reliability. It also includes data collection procedure and data analysis techniques.
Chapter four deals with data analysis, interpretation and discussion of the findings while chapter five comprises the summary of the study, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.
This chapter concerns itself with what other research have done concerning the topic under study. this chapter reviews studies undertaken by different scholars and any other authorized literature in related topics. It focuses on the various leadership style,
The term job satisfaction of teachers in the topic under study refers to whether or not teachers like their job or facets of jobs. Most at times the effect of head teachers’ leadership style on teachers’ job satisfaction is not take into consideration but through the effective supervision of instruction, head teachers can reinforce and enhance teaching practices that will contribute to improved teachers’ performance by in cooperating the teachers in decision making. All these can be achieved successfully depending on the kind of leadership style employed in his/her practice. Among determinants of job satisfaction, leadership is viewed as a pivot and plays a pivotal role in schools especially public basic schools. Teachers (Employee) job satisfaction depends upon the leadership style of Head teachers (Managers) 1.
Leadership styles have a powerful influence on individual and group behavior 2. A lot of scholars and researchers has proposed a lot of definition of the term leadership. leaders help people become more: principled, knowledgeable, skilled, passionate, determined, integrated and balanced 3. leaders subsequently help people achieve more productivity, quality and success. Leadership styles among school heads play a significant role in teachers’ motivation as well as in student achievement 4. The school head teacher will have to engage the teachers in their teaching through use of appropriate leadership styles in order to succeed in redirecting staff effort and in creating a conducive climate for teachers. According to Hardman (2011) teachers in improving and non-improving schools had minimal differences in how they perceived their principals’ leadership styles 24.
2.2 Democratic Style of Leadership and its Impact on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction
This style of leadership is a style where a leader involves employees or followers in its decision making. Decisions are not centered on the leader alone but it’s a collective contribution.
Democratic leadership style lead to the essence of goal ownership as all teachers in the school perceive the policies and goals they set as theirs, hence work hard to achieve them. An important factor that influences whether beginning teachers will remain in the profession is the amount of support and guidance they receive from school Head teachers and colleagues. This should assist the new teachers to settle down on the job as smoothly as possible to bring out the best in them 5.
Although a Democratic leader will make the final decision, he/she invites other members of the team to contribute the decision-making process. This not only increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members in what’s going on, but it also helps to develop teacher’s skills. Employees and team members feel in control of their own destiny, such as the promotion they deserve and so are motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward. As participation takes time, this approach can lead to things happening more slowly but often the end result is better. The approach can be most suitable where team work is essential and quality is more important than speed to achieve goals 9. In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and their attitudes toward it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creative and participative approach. Ideas about management and leadership have changed considerably in recent years. People today are better-educated and more articulate. They can no longer be commanded in the same way as before. There needs to be much more involvement and participation at work for them to feel comfortable achieving the target set by them 10.
This style of leadership is grounded on the thesis that the organization is the responsibility of all, even though the leader has the primary role of guiding the rest of the group in arriving at the collective decisions, thus encouraging ,delegating, coaching, accepting responsibility and recognition of the ability and potentials of others (teachers)11.The head teachers in primary schools in particular can be encouraged to use democratic leadership style in the management of primary school since most of head teachers will improve job satisfaction of their teachers by becoming more collaborative and democratic12. Democratic leadership style can bring the best out of an experienced and professional team. It capitalizes on their skills and talents by letting them share their views, rather than simply expecting them to conform.
2.2.1 Characteristics of Democratic Style of Leadership
Most democratic leaders share common characteristics, which makes the collaboration system of democracy function effectively.
126.96.36.199 Genuinely Seeks Others’ Opinions
According to leadership toolbox” If the marketplace of ideas is going to be open for business, everyone needs to feel comfortable enough to put their ideas on the table. The democratic leadership style thrives when all the considerations are laid out for everyone to examine. A leader and his team might not agree with every idea, and that’s ok. It is important, however, that you create a healthy environment where those ideas are entertained and considered –not maligned– or the flow of ideas will slow to a trickle. A democratic leader will encourage and be genuine in seeking another people’s input in the group. He will actively promote the sharing of ideas, so that everyone with different levels of expertise and skills are able to put forward their views. Democratic leaders respect others’ opinions and take them into consideration as a final decision is made”. In the process of seeking input and opinion of employees map up to job satisfaction of the employees.
188.8.131.52 Effectively Delegates Tasks
A democratic leader is able to collect all ideas put forward in open group discussion and effectively delegate tasks to the people who best fit the role. She should know the strengths and weaknesses of each person in the group and be able to entrust full responsibility accordingly. Her aim is to bring the best out of every group member in order for the most successful outcome. Obviously, the first major function of the framework has to be about distributing the power. The democratic leadership requires an equally shared power structure, without any hierarchy in decision-making. Gastil quoted Krech et al, who wrote in 1962, that the leader must aim “to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives”.
(Marthin 2016) Since people will be open to speak their mind and decisions are mainly done through majority vote, the leader has to be able to show fairness. There can’t be a situation where certain ideas are dealt in a favorable manner, while other people’s ideas are not fully appreciated. The democratic framework must be fair and consistent, with the leader bearing the brunt of this responsibility. As a leader, you need to be able to distance yourself from the situation emotionally and to think rationally. Fairness in this context also means transparency. If you allow subordinates to understand your own thinking process and decisions, you will show them your decisions are based on rationality and not unfair feelings you might have towards different employees. One of the key ways to be fairer is to set clear guidelines. If you and the team create a set of processes for the objectives you want to achieve, you limit the risk of appearing unfairly. Communicate with your subordinates more and ensure you listen to feedback, even if you think it isn’t just.
184.108.40.206 Offers Help and Guidance
Group members often come naturally to the democratic leader for help and guidance on an issue, and he will naturally offer it. The leader is often friendly, approachable and trustworthy. The aim of a democratic leader is to help others realize their own potential and use their skills effectively, and he will also actively encourage others to become leaders.
Another characteristics of democratic leadership style is Consensus decision making. Consensus decision-making is a characteristics of a democratic leadership style where the leader gives up control and responsibility of decision-making, leaving it entirely to the subordinates. The decision has to be approved by the majority (majority carries the vote) of the group while the minority of those who don’t agree initially have to agree to go along. In other words, the decision has to be modified to remove any objectionable features so that the minority can agree with it.
Advantages of democratic style of leadership
One of the advantage of democratic leadership Job satisfaction. When workers or subordinates feel like they are part of the administration and for that matter have an equal role in running the organization, then there is a sense of empowerment and encouragement that comes with that responsibility. When there is empowerment in the workplace, there is a naturally higher rate of job satisfaction. The democratic leadership style encourages workers to be more than just a machine or a “warm body.” It allows people to feel like they really are an important part of the organization.
Moreover, the employees are more devoted because of them being part of the decision-making process. Holistic solutions to problems result due to the collaborative environment created by this leadership style. This creates an ideal environment for collaborative problem-solving in addition to decision-making.
Democratic leaders are typically excellent when it comes to solving complex issues. They have the ability to work collaboratively, using a consensus of opinions ad ideas to get things done the right way. The democratic leader often thinks innovatively and encourages others to do the same, so that solutions to complex and strategic problems can be found. This empower the subordinates to develop upon their skills and abilities in order to make good contribution In the process of decision making.
2.3 Autocratic Style of Leadership and its Impact on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction
Head teachers use autocratic leadership style to ensure they have full control of their institution. Autocratic leadership does not rely on several teachers to make a decision in urgent situations 13. The autocratic, or “do this or else,” type of leadership is intuitive, easy to learn and does not require specialized training or knowledge of leadership theory, according to Leadership-Toolbox. Autocratic leaders do not have to worry about recognizing and responding to followers (teachers)’ emotions or try to meet different motivational needs of group members 14.
Head teachers’ can apply autocratic leadership where decisions need to be made quickly. The sole responsibility rests with the leader (head teacher), and he/she makes the decision without the need to consult others 15. It is a domineering style, where the leader alone takes decision for others to implement without previous consultation, very little communication, coercion, dictatorial; using threats and punishments, with trust in good intensions of others. Psychologists believe this style stems from fear and feeling of insecurity. Brutal force is then a defensive tool; obviously, thus according to McGregor’s Theory 11 16.
This leadership style maintains discipline and order in an institution. It prevents struggle forpower by giving clear directives to teachers resulting in quick decisions. However, this studyestablished mainly the negative side of the leadership style. Teachers complained of how they felt being used by their head teachers as a result of them not being interested in thewelfare of the teachers at school 17. With the above explanation it is clear indication that autocratic leadership style has negative impact on teacher job satisfaction. The figure below shows a diagrammatical representation of Autocratic leadership style.
Figure 2.1 Diagrammatic representation of autocratic leadership style
2.3.1 Characteristics of Autocratic Style of Leadership practice
Almost all the leaders who practice autocratic style of leadership share some common trait which include Control, Domineering, just to mention few.
The subordinates are directly supervised and monitored by the leader. As eluded in the above point, the leader’s role is to ensure subordinates follow the procedures effectively. Unlike in certain other leadership styles, the leader doesn’t walk away and return once the process is complete but stays actively involved with the tasks. The monitoring ensures the leader is able to use the reward and punishment structures efficiently, as well to ensure the team is not going away from the vision of the organisation. Essentially the authoritarian leadership framework relies on two things: power and efficiency. The power is in the hands of the leader, with established and clear hierarchy. The structure is pre-determined and therefore, guarantees everyone in the organization is aware of his or her place. However, the purpose of the autocratic leadership style is to improve and to guarantee efficiency (Anastasia 2017).
Autocratic leaders always want to feel total control and bossy over his or her subordinate. Autocratic leaders normally exhibit a high degree of dominance. This includes a captivating persona, aggressive demeanor and vocal assertiveness. In a meeting or group setting, the autocratic leader is typically the one talking and holding control of the floor. The ability to get the attention of employees and certainty of the leader’s authority are benefits of this quality. However, a domineering leader can also scare or oppress workers to the point they leave (Neil Kokemuller).
2.3.2 Advantage of Autocratic leadership style
without consulting with a large group of people. some projects require strong and competent leader in order to get things done quickly and efficiently. Have you ever been part of project which entails a lot of people that got derailed by poor organization? a lack of leadership, and an inability to set deadlines? if so chances are that you’re your mark or job performance suffered as a result. In such situations, a strong ad a competent leader who employs an autocratic style in his leadership can take charge of the group, allocate tasks to different members and establish concrete deadlines and guidelines for projects to be completed. It allows members of the group to focus on performing specific tasks without worrying about making complete decisions. This also allows the members of the group to become highly skilled at performing certain duties of which they know best and can be beneficial to the group.
First of all, Quick Decisions is One of the most essential factors in the favor of the autocracy. Since the leader is himself/herself responsible for all the decisions, therefore there is no time wastage in consulting external help for support or reviewing their ideas. The person responsible for decision making is himself doing all the thinking and executing part. An autocratic leadership style can be effective in a situation where decisions need to be made quickly (chris joseph). The sole responsibility rests on the shoulder of the leader alone, and he makes the decision without the need of consulting others. In a business there is need for some quick decision according to the market changes. Hence a leader who employs autocracy can quickly analyze the situation well and make all the relevant decisions for welfare of his business in relatively less time without relying on others. Hence in a way under this type of leadership style chances of people using their powers for personal gain are less.
Furthermore, Close watch is Another advantage of an autocracy of which we can’t do away with in terms of Pros of autocracy, in a situation where the leader keeps a close watch on the activities his subordinates. An autocratic style of leadership is constantly aware of the situation around him and has an idea about what would be the consequences. This try to do away of the potentiality for workers to go contrary to the guidelines and vision of company that may occur with some lenient styles of management. The result of this can increase productivity and speed, as workers who fall victims to the rule are quickly identified and necessary actions are been taken. Quality may ad discipline may improve, as the employer have a clear idea of what he should expect from his employees and their work is monitored constantly. it saves a lot of time as the leader ca closely monitor the work performance of the workers. Under this type of leadership style there is total control by the leader over the workers of the company and hence the chance of inefficiency is far less.
In addition to, depending on the industry, new employees may need specific instructions and close follow-up until they learn the job, according to Leadership-Toolbox. The autocratic leadership style is also good for low-skilled tasks, such as directing employees to do what is expected from them. In addition, according to Leadership Expert, bosses may need to use the “do it or else” type of autocratic leadership to ensure that unmotivated employees complete their assigned tasks (Travis, Eryn).
2.4 Laissez-faire Style of Leadership and its Impact on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction
The terminology is from the French “Let them do what they wish.” There are no hard and fast rules, which lead to complete freedom or autonomy to staff of the organization. When a wrong person is put in charge, he or she refuses to take action in order not to offend the followers, thus producing disastrous consequences 11 16.
However, where the subordinates are skilled in the various disciplines, this system can be appropriate. The Laissez-faire leadership can lead to apathy and anarchy on the part of the staff(teachers) 11. The laissez-faire leader is extremely passive and inactive, resulting in the expectant self-empowerment of the follower 18. Frequent absence and the lack of involvement of critical decision-making are utilized as a method of driving the follower to self-management 19. In Laissez-Faire leadership style, the leader maintains contact with outside people and bring in information to the group members which they need for the accomplishment of the given task. Although, the subordinates are given the power and authority to make decisions the leader still takes responsibility for the actions of his group members. Laissez faire leaders try to give the least possible guidance to subordinates and try to achieve control through less obvious means. They believe that people excel when they are left alone to respond to their responsibilities and obligations in their own ways. Laissez-faire leadership styles have negative impact on teacher performance by frustrating and demotivating them 17.
Advantage of laser-fare style of leadership
Although laissez-faire will not be a beneficial leadership style if a team is not experienced or knowledgeable, it is very effective when there is an established team of expertise. The delegative style can be effective in a case where team members actually have more ideas about a particular project than the group’s leader. Because team members are experts in a particular area, the laissez-faire style gives them the opportunity to exercise their creativity and their deep knowledge and skill surrounding that particular subject. By counting on these experiences and letting that wisdom come through, tasks become easier to accomplish because the leadership is getting out of the way to let their team do what they do best.
Laser-fare also promote creativity among the members of the team. Since this style fosters a creative environment by given the team members the freedom to do what they are best doing, it encourages them to put up their best in order to satisfy their leader.
2.5 Transformational Style of Leadership and its Impact on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction
Transformational leadership style has a stronger relationship with job satisfaction. Thisimplies that transformational leadership is deemed suitable for managing governmentorganizations 20. Notwithstanding the current management style used by headmaster’s/head teachers, the transformational or facilitative leader has become on effectives leadership style in current public education system 11. Many researchers had also proposed that moving towards transformational leadership was the only viable way for school restructuring and reform 21. Transformational leadership is defined as a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social systems. In its ideal form, it creates valuable and positive change in the followers with the end goal of developing followers into leaders. Enacted in its authentic form, transformational leadership enhances the motivation, morale and performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms. These include connecting the follower’s sense of identity and self to the mission and the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers that inspires them; challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers, so the leader can align followers with tasks that optimize their performance.
Transformational leadership style creates conditions that help to bring teachers’ job satisfaction. Teachers who felt that their work gave them a sense of self-esteem and provided them with opportunities for self-development were also more satisfied with their job 10. The way teachers perceived their work were influenced by the leadership style of the principal at school. Transformational leaders more often stimulated the self-esteem of teachers, gave them a feeling of success and allowed them to participate in determining school practices 22. As such, they indirectly affected teachers’ job satisfaction – next to a direct effect the principal’s leadership style had on the job satisfaction of teachers. According to Nelly Andende (2016) transformational leadership styles had a stronger relationship with job satisfaction. This implies that transformational leadership is deemed suitable for managing government organizations 17. According to Burns, transforming leadership is a process in which “leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation”. Burns related to the difficulty in differentiation between management and leadership and claimed that the differences are in characteristics and behaviors. He established two concepts: “transforming leadership” and “transactional leadership”. According to Burns, the transforming approach creates significant change in the life of people and organizations. It redesigns perceptions and values, and changes expectations and aspirations of employees. Unlike in the transactional approach, it is not based on a “give and take” relationship, but on the leader’s personality, traits and ability to make a change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals. Transforming leaders are idealized in the sense that they are a moral exemplar of working towards the benefit of the team, organization and/or community. Burns theorized that transforming and transactional leadership were mutually exclusive styles. Transactional leaders usually do not strive for cultural change in the organization but they work in the existing culture while transformational leaders can try to change organizational culture.
Another researcher, Bernard M. Bass (1985), extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership; Bass also used the term “transformational” instead of “transforming.” Bass added to the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational leadership could be measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance. 2 The extent to which a leader is transformational, is measured first, in terms of his influence on the followers. The followers of such a leader feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect for the leader and because of the qualities of the transformational leader are willing to work harder than originally expected. These outcomes occur because the transformational leader offers followers something more than just working for self-gain; they provide followers with an inspiring mission and vision and give them an identity. The leader transforms and motivates followers through his or her idealized influence (earlier referred to as charisma), intellectual stimulation and individual consideration. In addition, this leader encourages followers to come up with new and unique ways to challenge the status quo and to alter the environment to support being successful. Transformational leaders are able to increase follower self-efficacy, giving the group a “can do” spirit. followers are more likely to pursue ambitious goals, agree on the strategic goals of the organisation and believe the goals they are pursuing are personally important. finally, transformational leadership engenders commitment on the part of followers and instills greater trust in the leader,
2.5.1 Share collective organizational consciousness
According to yscout leadership community, a transformational leader shares and understands the collective consciousness of the entire organization. This makes them particularly attuned to the feelings of their team members and gives them a clear idea of what actions to take to elicit desired actions from the employees. Since they’re tapped into the organizational consciousness, they are able to make decisions that spur growth, and also create a shared vision for the organization that all employees feel a part of.
2.5.2 Strong Leadership Ego
In an article written by st mary’s university, transformational leadership can be exceptionally difficult to balance a person’s ego in the pursuit of ambition. After all, it is all too easy to shove others aside for personal gain. Good leadership qualities include the ability to share the credit, so that everyone gets acknowledgment for their hard work. Transformational leaders also understand how important it is to take criticism with grace, not by passing the buck or blaming others for their own shortcomings.
They freely admit their flaws and work to improve them or balance them. Of course, they do not simply let everyone else insult or denigrate them. Instead, they take strength from their gifts and use those talents to overcome their weaknesses. In all things, an exceptional leader seeks to share the limelight with those who deserve it.
A transformational leader must have must have a vision of which his subordinate must follow. Being a visionary is about setting a realistic and concise company mission, vision, and values that fit the culture of your organization. Transformational leaders have the ability not only to effectively communicate the vision but also get every person to buy in and work toward that vision by communicating with passion and clearly emphasizing the direction they want the company to pursue (Bill Hogg 2016).
2.5.4 Intellectual stimulation
Transformational leadership aims to enhance creativity and it actively seeks to promote autonomy and shared responsibility. Although it doesn’t necessarily set out a clear decision-making framework, it does tend to fall towards a more democratic model. Intellectual stimulation, which includes shared decision-making and innovation at its core, is a key component in the leadership framework. Instead of making decisions for the subordinates and telling them what to do, the transformational leader calls for innovative thinking and ‘get it done’ mentality. Subordinates are encouraged to be in charge of their own decisions.
A big part of intellectual stimulation relies on the approach the leader takes towards problems and ideas. Subordinates are free and encouraged to solicit ideas without the fear of critique under this system. Instead of stating that a certain approach is wrong, the leader aims to change the way subordinates think about a problem and to see the different ways they could overcome the issues facing them. Overall, transformational leadership framework is not set. If the processes are found ineffective and unhelpful in the quest to achieve a certain vision, then a transformational leader is willing to change the system (Martin 2016).
The previous chapter gave an insight of what different researchers found in their studies,their conclusions and their recommendations. In this chapter, the different methods,approaches and strategies used by the researcher to execute the study are explained. Themethodology of the study is presented under the headings, research design, populationof the study, study sample, sampling procedure, ethical consideration, data collection procedures, instruments for data collection, data analysis and
3.2 Research Design and Study Site
This study adopted qualitative research approach to study in depth analysis of leadership style of head teachers and its impact on teachers job satisfaction in the selected schools within the metropolis , The qualitative used here means the kind of information collected was not base on numbers but based on words that expressed feelings, perceptions and attitudes of the respondents, observation and immersion, interviews, open-ended surveys, focus groups, content analysis of visual and textual materials, and oral history. According to Ashley Crossman Qualitative research is a type of social science research that collects and works with non-numerical data and that seeks to interpret meaning from these data that help us understand social life through the study of targeted populations or places. As stated by Devaus the research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data. The research design helps to plan in detail how to answer the research questions. For this study, the researcher employed a descriptive case study design. Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. In other words, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study. Hair (2011) state that a descriptive research design is usually structured and specifically designed to measure the characteristics described in the research questions. On the other hand, this study employed a descriptive design because the study focused on a smaller sample of the population and to provide a narrative account about the study in details.
3.3 Target Population of the study
Kombo and Tromp (2006) define population as an entire group of persons or elements thathave at least one thing in common. The study was carried out in public primary schools situated in the Kumasi metropolis.
3.4 Sampling Size and Sampling procedure
Orodho (2005) defines sampling as the process of selecting a sub set of cases in order to draw conclusions about the entire set. Sampling is essential because one can learn something about a large group by studying a few of the members. The study adopted non-sampling technique in selecting the school as well as the participant’s. participants of the study consisted of 70 female teachers and 80 male teachers from 15 public primary school, which were randomly selected from the eligible number of public primary school I the metropolis. The schools which were considered to be eligible were the school which has been ruled by a headteacher for at least two years with the assumption that they had undergone under various leadership styles of their head teachers and hence having enough experience on head teachers’ leadership styles and their effects on their job satisfaction. More over the participant teacher who were eligible for this study were the teachers who has been under the umbrella of a headteacher for at least two years. In all samples of 150 respondent, which comprises of 10 teachers from each school were selected for the study.150 respondent was selected to complete the questionnaire which gave 100% responding rate.
3.5 Ethical Consideration
In ensuring that ethical issues were taken into consideration during the project, theresearcher ensured that participants were not inconvenienced. The researcherexplained into details to the participants of the study that, the reason why they should be honest in answering the questionnaire, they were also made aware that they had a right to opt out of the study; however, doing so would be detrimental to them. Furthermore, the researcher assured theparticipants that all responses that were being received were treated with utmostconfidentiality and so they should not be afraid to give accurate responses that reflectthe reality of situations on the ground.
3.6 Method of data collection
The data was collected by a structured questionaries’ that was conducted among the teachers from the selected schools.
3.7 Instrument for data collection
The study used one instrument to collect data. Which is the questionaries’ for in-depth interviews. A questionnaire consists of formalized and pre-specified set of questions designed to obtain responses from potential respondents. This is the written list of questions that is covered by the interviewer (Creswell, 2009). In-depth interviews were administered to the teachers(participant) from the selected schools. Question in the questionnaire reflected the research objectives under study. The questions I the questionaries’ were understandable readable by the respondents. This ensured that all responses obtained from participants were accurate and easily analyzable.
3.8 Data Analysis Procedure
Based on the study objectives and questions, the qualitative data collected from the researchtools were grouped into meaningful patterns that revealed how the themes were related.Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Thus, themes categorization and narrationswere made. The major themes were derived from the objectives of the study. Description ofeach theme was done, analyzed and interpreted critically and objectively. The researchercarefully examined the data to ensure uniformity, accuracy and completeness.
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