Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are better known to students as sugars and starchesCarbohydrates Carbohydrates are better known to students as sugars and starches

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are better known to students as sugars and starches.
Monosaccharides or simple sugars such as glucose and fructose (C6H12O6) function as energy source in cells during cellular respiration and are also used to build cell structures and other organic molecules within the cells.
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together. Sucrose (table sugar) is a disacharide composed of one glucose and one fructose molecule.
Polysaccharides: Are long chains of monosaccharides bond together. Plants store excess glucose in the form of starch, a polysaccharide composed of long chains of glucose. Starches can be found in potatoes, rice, wheat, corn, bananas, peas, beans, lentils, and other tubers, seeds and fruits of plants. Animals (and humans) store excess glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles. Between meals the liver breaks down glycogen to glucose and releases it into the blood stream to supply glucose to cells in need. Other important polysaccharides are cellulose and chitin. Cellulose makes up the cell wall of plants whereas chitin provides structure to fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods.