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Assignment on : Synopsis
Submitted to : Mam Maria Mumtaz
Submitted by : Ouz Gull
Roll no : BS-BC-17-16
Subject: English-lll
Semester: 3rd
Department: Biochemistry

• Working Title:
A study of ” Rice plant growth” in biology .
• INTRODUCTION:
“Smiles ,rainbow and a grain of rice. I could survive on that!”
(Anthony T. Hincks)
“when it comes to things such as sugar and rice ,most people believe that brown is superior to white. But when it comes to human beings , they believe that the opposite is true.”
(Mokokoma Mokhonoana)

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Rice (Oryzae sativa) is the fundamental food over ½ of the world’s population. It is growing on 11 % of world agricultural land . Over 99% of the world’s rice is produced and consumed in the Asian area by six countries named as China, lndia, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Japan. After wheat the secondly most cultivated cereal is Rice .It gives us 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein consumed all over the world. Rice is known as a partial-aquatic ,annual grass plant and grows in a wide range of soil and water establishment: soaked and upland.
The complete life of rice cultivars ranges from 110 to 150 days from germination of seed to formation of complete plant , it depends on the variety and the environment. Rice plant growth is divided into the following steps of development :
1.germination
2.vegetative (teem to panicle initiation)
3.reproductive (panicle initiation to heading )
4.grain filling and ripening or burgeoning(heading to fulfilment of growth)
1. Germination:
Germination in rice take place when the first shoot and root start to pop up from the seed and the rice plant begin to prosper.
To burgeon, rice seeds need to soak a certain amount of water and be revealed to a temperature of 10-40°C. This crack the inactiveness of the seed. When it is planted into swap soil, the shoot is the first to exposed from the seed, with the roots growing when the first shoot has reached the air. If the seed is planted in dry soil, the root is the first to exposed from the seed and then the shoot.
2.Vegetative phase:
The vegetative phase is discriminated by the evolution of wheels and more leaves, and a unspectacular rise in plant length. The number of days the burgeoning step takes changes turning on the diversity of rice, but is usually 55 and 85 days.
The initial vegetative phase starts as soon as the seed prospers into a seedling and finishes at tillering. The seedling stage begins just after the first root and shoot disclose, and lasts until just prior to first tiller appears. During this stage, primary roots and up to five leaves originate. As the sprouting continues to develop, two more leaves emerge. Leaves unrelenting development move on at the rate of on every 3-4 days during the early stage.
The late vegetative phase begins when tillering initiate, which expands from the appearance of the first tiller until the large number of tillers is obtained. This normally happens 40 days after sowing. The stem turn out to heighted late in the tillering stage and stops growing in length just prior to panicle origination about 52 days after sowing, which also signals the end of the vegetative phase.
3.Reproductive phase:
The first sign that the rice plant is constructed to enter its reproductive phase is a boosting of the leaf stem that hides the prospering panicle, called the booting’ ‘stage. Then the tip of the growing panicle exposed from the stem and steady to grow. Rice is said to be at the ‘heading’ stage when the panicle is fully naked. Flowering initiates a day after heading has exhausted. As the flowers unbarred and outhouse their irritant on each other so that pollination can occur. Flowering can sustained for about 7 days.
4.Ripening phase:
The ripening phase begins at flowering and ends when mizzle is grown up and prepare for gleaning. This stage normally takes 30 days. Showering days or low temperatures may elongate the maturing period, while sunny and hot days may shrink it. The last three phases of growth organize the ripening phase.
Ripening accompanies fertilization and can be segregated into milky , dough, yellow, ripe and maturity stages. These expressions are basically depends on the feel and colour of the developing grains. The period of ripening alters among varieties from about 15 to 40 days. Ripening is also influenced by temperature , with a range from about 30 days in equatorial to 65 days in cool fairy areas.
• LITERATURE REVIEW:
Origin of rice has been a medium of argument for rice researchers. Rice was an important cereal in Asia since 2500 BC prior to the time of Greeks and Vavilov (1951) considered India and Myanmar as the centre of origin of cultivated rice. African and Asian cultured rice is thought to be Oryza perennis by few workers ( chang , 1976). Ancientness of genus Oryza dates back to cretaceous era of about 130 million years ago ( Melville, 1996 ; chang , 1985).
Negative link between plant height and grain yield was observed by Rao(1988). While positive association between plant length and grain yield was observed by Jangalee et al.,(1987) and Deosarkar et al., (1989). Plant height had a fruitful and direct influence on grain yield (Ramakrishnayya et al., 1991 ; Kumar , 1992).
The numbers of panicles per hill and plant length is observed to have negative direct effect on productivity (Parsad et al, 2001 and Zahid et al, 2006) but 1000- grain weight have high and positive absolute impact on rice productivity (Surek and Beser, 2003 ; Zahid et al, 2006). Pollen grains of hot grasses usually show rather little dissimilarities in size (Joly et al, 2007).

? Rice and Myths
Rice is an important part of many cultural folklore. In Bali, Lord Vishnu sourced the Earth to give emergence to rice and the god Indra taught people how to grows it. And in China rice is the blessing of animals. Legends says after a catastrophic overflowing all plants had been damaged and no food was obtainable. One day a dog ran through the fields to the people with rice seed affixing with his tail. The people planted the seeds, rice grew and hunger finished. All of these stories and many others have rice as their basics and for families people have a trust on these lores of Rice.

• RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
? Why do the flooded fields are best for rice plant growth?
? How long does rice take to grow?
? What climate does rice grow in?
• OBJECTIVS OF STUDY:
1.To compare the growth of rice in flooded fields and dry lands.
2.To estimate the exact time for rice growth in favourable conditions.
3.To offer ideas based on the findings with a thought to improve the production of rice.
4.To study the best climate conditions for rice growth.
• RESARCH METHODOLOGY:
The study is done on the basis of primary and secondary data. The primary data will be collected from the sample respondents by providing Interview Schedules. The scientist reviews and their biographies would thoroughly read. Their work in field of rice growth will be analysed. Other helping material like tables , graphs and bars will be used to attain clarity on the rice growth elements. The secondary resources will be internet websites www.eolss.net/sample-Chapters , www.fao.org and www.mdpi.com , libraries, pamphlets, articles and reviews.
• IMPACT OF STUDY:
Through this study the audience will be able to know about the facts related with rice growth. This study will give a right way to grow the rice in the presence of essential resources. My study will absolutely a helpful topic for the people who recently indulge in agriculture. People can not change the environmental conditions but can take measuring steps for better production of rice. They will know about the exact time of harvesting the crop.

• REFERENCES:
• Ahmed MI 1997 Development and use of hybrid rice technology – Lessons learnt from the Indian experience. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Progress in the Development and Use of Hybrid Rice Outside China, Hanoi, Vietnam, 28-30 May 1997.
• Abdoulaye B 2002 Rapport national sur la production, la commercialization et l’utilisation du riz au Niger. Paper presented at the Regional workshop on harmonization of policies and coordination of programmes on rice in the ECOWAS sub-region. 25-28 February 2002, Accra, Ghana
• · Abreu L 1994 La riziculture en Guinée-Bissau. Country report 18th Session IRC, Rome, 5-9 Sept 1994
• · Adhikari NP 1998 Rice Production In Nepal. Paper presented at 19th Session of IRC, Cairo, Egypt, 7-9 Sept. 1998
• · Aggrey-Fynn E 2002 The State of rice industry in Ghana. Paper presented at the Regional workshop on harmonization of policies and co-ordination of programmes on rice in the ECOWAS sub-region. 25-28 February 2002, Accra, Ghana
• · Aguilar M and D Grau, 1995 Effecto del abonado nitrogenado en el contenido de nitrógeno folliar en arrozal. Paper presented at the Workshop on Quality and Competitiveness of European Rices. Aries, Frances, 18-20 May 1995
• · Aguilar M, D Grau, M Espinosa and JM Contrepas 1997 Effect of preseeding nitrogen fertilization on rice yield in Southern Spain. Paper presented at the Int. Symposium on Rice Quality. 24-27 November 1997, Nottingham, UK.
• · Ahmadu Bello University 1996 Prospect and problems of the 1996 cropping season

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