Arabic Vs Turkish Matrix Test results in arab bilingual children in turkey STUDENT NAME Diala Hussein STUDENT NUMBER N17134851 COURSE NAME Central Auditory Processing Disorders and Evaluation in Children DEPARTMENT Department of Audiology COURSE CODE ODP618 SUPERVISOR AssocArabic Vs Turkish Matrix Test results in arab bilingual children in turkey STUDENT NAME Diala Hussein STUDENT NUMBER N17134851 COURSE NAME Central Auditory Processing Disorders and Evaluation in Children DEPARTMENT Department of Audiology COURSE CODE ODP618 SUPERVISOR Assoc

Arabic Vs Turkish Matrix Test results in arab bilingual children in turkey
STUDENT NAME
Diala Hussein
STUDENT NUMBER
N17134851
COURSE NAME
Central Auditory Processing Disorders and Evaluation in Children
DEPARTMENT
Department of Audiology
COURSE CODE
ODP618
SUPERVISOR
Assoc. Professor Meral Didem Türky?lmaz
DATE OF SUBMISSION
30/05/2018

INTRODUCTION:
“Bilingualism is a phenomenon that has existed since the beginning of language in human history and it is very difficult to find a society that is genuinely monolingual.” (1). The bilingualism has been defined in different ways through different stages, early definition said that a bilingual person is the one who has a control of both languages just as a native-like.  Then, the definition became wider as it is enough to have the least efficiency in one of the not your native languages four skills (Reading, writing, listening and speaking) to be bilingual. (2). Also, there are different types of bilingualism; Simultaneous Bilingualism Which takes place when the exposure is worthy and meaningful to two languages by a young child from the birth, And Sequential Bilingualism Which takes place when the exposure is worthy and meaningful to the second language by the individual, ordinarily after the fully establishing of the first language and after 3 years of age. (3). But now the question is (is it a problem to be a bilingual person?) in research for (Tabri et al. 2010) (4) they found in spite of the fact that in quiet situations, monolinguals and bilinguals showed evenly performance, when SNR was poor, bilingual speakers displayed greater speech- perception hardness in noise (when the SNR is zero or +5 dB). Furthermore, in research for (KRIZMAN et al., 2016) they have reached the result that the monolingual group had performed better in the sentence-in-noise test rather than the bilingual group. (5). Also, in (Stuart et al 2010) research, they found that a notably poorer performance appeared in the Bilingual group (Mandarin-English) speaking listeners when perceiving L2 nonnative sentences in interrupted and continuous noise and in quiet comparative to English-Speaking listeners (Monolingual group). (6). This problem reminds us of a problem which one who is diagnosed with Auditory processing disorder could suffer from, this problem is poor recognition of speech in noise. (7). Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) defined as a disorder that occurs when there is a deficit in the processing of auditory stimuli which is not due to a higher-order process. (8) a person with APD Could suffer from poor performance in one or more of auditory skills such as; “auditory performance with degraded acoustic signals, auditory discrimination, auditory pattern recognition, sound localization and lateralization, and temporal aspects of audition which contain temporal integration, temporal ordering, temporal masking, and temporal discrimination.” (8) but the main performance that we are going to concentrate on in this research is the speech perception in noise. Is there a relation between APD and Bilingualism? (Jenny Hooi Yin Loo et al 2013) in their study proved that language background could affect the performance of auditory processing on some speech-based tasks. (13). There are different tests which were used and are using to test the performance of speech perception in noise, for example WIN, SPIN, and Quick-SIN tests, and the task of these tests is to repeat a polysyllabic or monosyllabic target word. Other tests are using with the task to repeat a complete sentence or sentence keywords such as LISN-S, HINT, BKB-SINT, SIN, CST, and SSI-ICM tests. (7). Furthermore, there are other tests that we can use to measure speech reception in noise through, these tests are International Matrix Tests. (9) “Matrix Sentence Tests are adaptive speech in noise tests for determining the speech reception threshold (SRT) with a precision in the range of ±1 dB” (9). Also, Matrix Sentence Tests are available in different languages; Arabic, English, Turkish, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian and Polish. (9). Different studies had been done on the same topic (4,5,6,7,13), but this is the first one which will be done by using matrix tests.
Objectives:
To compare Arabic vs Turkish Matrix tests results in a bilingual group (Simultaneous Bilingualism) of Arab children who are talking Turkish and Arabic fluently, and also to compare the results of tests with its norms.
Hypothesis:
We think that there will be differences in the thresholds between Arabic and Turkish tests as the Arabic test thresholds will be better than the Turkish, and when comparing the results with norms, there will be a difference in results of Turkish tests and its norms.
Participants and Methods:
Participants:
20 Arab children with age range 7-12 who were born and lived in Turkey from birth and learned Arabic and Turkish together. All children should have normal otoscopic examination, normal hearing threshold less than 20dBHL (10), normal middle ear function (11), normal ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds (12), normal academic success, no history of middle ear infections, or history of head trauma, and no speech and/or language disorders.

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Methods:
For all participants; otoscopic examination, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes (ipsilateral and contralateral), pure tone audiometry will be done, also some questionnaire will be filled either by parents or by children themselves. After being sure that participants are not having any hearing, speech, and academically problems, Arabic Matrix test will be applied, and after a 30 minutes’ break Turkish matrix test will be applied.
Research Recommendations:
To keep in mind when assessing bilingual children that the language could affect their performance even in the test or in the daily life, and to improve the clinic’s services to cover the bilingual societies needing.
REFERENCES:
Adebile, Ruth (2010) “The Origin, Notions, Extent And Outcome Of Bilingualism: Implication For Effective Teaching And Learning Of English Language In Nigerian Junior Secondary Schools,” Academic Leadership: The Online Journal: Vol. 8: Iss. 4, Article 71. Available at: https://scholars.fhsu.edu/alj/vol8/iss4/71
Dewaele, Jean-Marc. (2015). Bilingualism and Multilingualism. 10.1002/9781118611463/wbielsi108.

“Bilingualism.” American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, www.asha.org/practice/multicultural/issues/bll.htm.

Tabri, Dollen, et al. “Speech Perception in Noise by Monolingual, Bilingual and Trilingual Listeners.” Freshwater Biology, Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111), 27 May 2011, onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3109/13682822.2010.519372/abstract.

Krizman, Jennifer, et al. “How Bilinguals Listen in Noise: Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Factors.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 20, no. 04, 2016, pp. 834–843., doi:10.1017/s1366728916000444.

Stuart, Andrew, et al. “Reception Thresholds for Sentences in Quiet and Noise for Monolingual English and Bilingual Mandarin-English Listeners.” Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, vol. 21, no. 4, 2010, pp. 239–248., doi:10.3766/jaaa.21.4.3.

Lagace´, Jose´e, et al. “Auditory Processing Disorder and Speech Perception Problems in Noise: Finding the Underlying Origin.” American Journal of Audiology, vol. 19, no. 1, 2010, p. 17., doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2010/09-0022).

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). (Central) auditory processing disorders Technical report. Available from www.asha.org /policy.

International Matrix Tests Reliable Speech Audiometry in Noise. HörTech GGmbH, Oct. 2016.

“FAQs.” British Society of Audiology, www.thebsa.org.uk/public-engagement/faqs/.

“Recommended Procedure Tympanometry.” BSA, 2013.

Emanuel, Diana C. “Acoustic Reflex Threshold (ART) Patterns: An Interpretation Guide for Students and Supervisors Diana C. Emanuel.” AudiologyOnline, 14 Sept. 2009, www.audiologyonline.com/articles/acoustic-reflex-threshold-art-patterns-875.

Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin, Doris-Eva Bamiou, and Stuart Rosen. “The Impacts of Language Background and Language-Related Disorders in Auditory Processing Assessment.” Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research 56.1 (2013): 1. Web.