A model of stress was measured by Cohen et al

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A model of stress was measured by Cohen et al (1983).The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is developed to measures the degree to which a person experiences his or her life as unexpected, uncontrollable and overloaded (Cohen et al., 1983). To operationalize this model to measure its influence, Cohen et al (1983) created the PPS. Furthermore, there are 14-item scale and each item has five point scale from “never” (0) to “very often (4)”, with (3) as the midpoint of each scale item (Cohen et al., 1983). Higher scores on this measure indicate greater level of Perceived Stress; the maximum score is 56 and it more likely individual will perceive the demand from environment exceed their ability scope (Cohen et al, 1983). The psychometric properties of the scale have been well documented. Good internal consistency has been shown, as indicated by Cronbach’s alpha values of 0.84, 0.85, and 0.86 in three samples (Cohen et al., 1983). The Swedish version of PSS also has demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’salpha=0.82) (Eskin and Parr, 1996). Cronbach’s alpha for the PSS in the present study was 0.83 (Cohen et al, 1983).